The National Security Apparatus
The OSS was one of the first victims of the rapid postwar demobilization. The Bureau of the Budget recommended a return to departmental rather than central intelligence, with an interdepartmental committee for coordination. On September 20, 1945, President Harry S Truman ordered the termination of OSS operations effective October 1, 1945. Some OSS components survived, albeit dispersed. R&A went to the State Department, where it was united with other units to form the Interim Research and Intelligence Service. Truman hoped that the State Department would "take the lead" in coordinating intelligence. The War Department took the Secret Intelligence Branch (clandestine collection) and X-2, the counterespionage branch, combining them into the Strategic Service Unit (SSU). All three surviving branches continued their previous activities.
Toward the end of the war, a long series of studies and debates began over the proper national security organization the U.S. government should have. With the return of peace, these debates resumed with vigor. Although many issues were at stake -- such as policy coordination, defense unification, the future of the air force, and the role of intelli-