U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy

By Mark M. Lowenthal | Go to book overview

4
Intelligence and an Activist Foreign Policy

The Kennedy administration took office professing a more activist foreign policy approach, with an organizational arrangement that envisaged a more direct role for the president. Eisenhower's very elaborate NSC structure was scrapped in favor of a more barebones approach. Critics charged that Kennedy's arrangement lacked form, direction, coordination, and control and that it emphasized current developments at the expense of planning. Although the role of the NSC was downgraded, the role of McGeorge Bundy, assistant to the president for national security affairs, was expanded so that this adviser would have a more active policy-making position. Kennedy also allowed the PBCFIA to resign at the outset of his term and made no move to replace its members until after the Cuban debacle. On May 4, 1961, fewer than three weeks after the failed invasion of Cuba, Kennedy established the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB), which resumed the duties of the old board in evaluating U.S. intelligence activities and agencies.

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U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Foreword ix
  • About the Author xiii
  • Summary xv
  • I - The Evolution of U.S. Intelligence 1
  • Introduction 3
  • 1 - Antecedents of the Modern U.S. Intelligence Community 6
  • 2 - The National Security Apparatus 13
  • 3 - The Age of Smith and Dulles 22
  • 4 - Intelligence and an Activist Foreign Policy 30
  • 5 - The Great Intelligence Investigation 39
  • 6 - Politicized Intelligence 47
  • 7 - A Restored" Intelligence Community" 66
  • 8 - Intelligence in the Post-Cold War World 87
  • 9 - Observations 100
  • II - The Anatomy of U.S. Intelligence 103
  • 10 - Central Coordination and Management 105
  • 11 - Intelligence Agencies and Components 116
  • 12 - Oversight Bodies 138
  • 13 - Observations 144
  • Notes 146
  • Index 169
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