Many people from many quarters have helped me with this book. Colleagues, friends, family members, and students have all shared information, memories, opinions, and photographs over the two and a half years spent on this work. They have seemed genuinely interested even when every conversation with me ended up on the topic of teenagers.
As always, librarians have been my mainstay. Pam Draper of Clemson University, Rita Smith of the University of Florida, Dee Jones of the University of Southern Mississippi, and Lucy Caswell of the Cartoon Research Library of Ohio State University have been invaluable. I also thank Barbara Rich and the staff at DC Comics, who lend dignity and efficiency as well as a sense of humor to the business of comics. The staff at the Museum of Modern Art Film Stills Archive provided expert help.
Among my student assistants, two deserve special mention. Rebecca Bridges gathered general statistical information as well as insights into fashion and into the phenomenon that is Madonna. Jessica Vaughan provided significant help with research on the Eighties. Both offered not only well- organized paperwork but charming and informative conversations about teens.
I have had expert help on statistics from Stacey Willocks of Clemson University, who organized an overload of information with unfailing good sense, efficiency, and thoroughness. I will be forever grateful.
Among my colleagues, I especially thank Tom Inge for sending this project my way, Ray Barfield for his information about radio and comic strips, Bart Palmer for lending me films and for reminding me of the MOMA Film