Ecology and the World-System

By Walter L. Goldfrank; David Goodman et al. | Go to book overview
6
An attribute the ecologist Colinvaux nicely captures by the label of "niche-shifting" ( 1978, chap. 16).
7
The label "tributary" was originally applied by Amin ( 1976) to characterize the principal form of surplus accumulation used by the pre-capitalist empires. It refers to the institutional forms that accumulation took: on an individual level, the peasant or slave that worked the land was expected to give up a portion of his crop to the representatives of the state as a "tribute" or tax; while surrounding client or colonial states purchased their continued nominal "independence" also by the payment of "tribute." On both levels, the revenue of the state was a form of what would now be called a "protection racket." For further information see Amin ( 1976) or Chase-Dunn and Grimes ( 1995).
8
Even though it did greatly catalyze the conversion of large areas of land from traditional uses to sheep production while simultaneously encouraging the foundation of plantations using slave labor for cash-crop production.
9
An excellent account of the development of these higher incomes in the colonies of European settlement can be found in Amin ( 1976).
10
The regimentation of worker movements in commodity assembly based upon the time-motion studies of Frederick Taylor, extensive discussion of which can be found in Braverman ( 1974).
11
Fossil fuels are solar in origin as well, but insofar as their initial solar "charge" happened during and before the dinosaur eras, our use of them now is like taking money out of a savings account without any restoration. We are living off of our solar "capital."
12
A longer and more specific list can be found in Commoner ( 1971).
13
Dengue fever has already been observed moving north from Central America into Mexico.
14
Ironically counter to this trend, the withdrawal of cold war patronage has actually facilitated peace agreements and democratization in El Salvador and Guatemala because the support of the United States was essential to the power of the military supporting the oligarchies there.
15
This is another manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics elaborately and persuasively explained by Commoner ( 1977).

REFERENCES

Amin Samir. 1976. Unequal Development. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Aronowitz Stanley. 1973. False Promises: The Shaping of American Working Class Consciousness. New York: McGraw-Hill.

BBC. 1997. "Outlook". May 14.

BBC. 1997. "The World Today". May 8 and May 19.

Blaustein Andrew R., and David B. Wake. 1995. The Puzzle of Declining Amphibian Populations. Scientific American 27( 4): 52-57.

Bonacich Edna. 1994. The New Asian Immigration in Los Angeles and Global Restructuring. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Bonner John Tyler. 1988. The Evolution of Complexity by Means of Natural Selection. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Braverman Harry. 1974. Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Burbach Roger, and Patricia Flynn. 1980. Agribusiness in the Americas. New York: Monthly Review Press and the North American Congress on Latin America.

Caldwell Lynton Keith. 1996. International Environmental Policy, 3rd ed. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Chase-Dunn, Christopher, and Peter Grimes. 1995. "World-System Analysis". Annual Review of Sociology 21: 387-417.

-40-

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