Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel (1782-1852)
Froebel developed a theory and detailed method for educating young children called
the kindergarten.Contributions to education made by Froebel include a belief that learning should
be an active process, the inclusion of play as an educational method, and the understanding that childhood is a unique time. He suggested a cooperative social environment rather than a competitive environment and put forth the belief that education was a process of unfolding of abilities. His child-centered curriculum included
self-activity, physical activity, music, outdoor activities, and a series of manipulative materials called "Gifts and Occupations," which used the senses, followed a
specific sequence, and provided detailed teacher directions. He advocated the training of young women as teachers; the development of songs and finger-plays for
home and school; and wrote numerous books including The Education ofMan and
The Pedagogics of the Kindergarten. Froebel attempted to build a new system of education suited to the needs of
young children and that would provide materials to help children organize and
understand the world. This became a systematic, organized connection between
theory and practice on which other pioneers built to create early childhood education.
|83. || Padagogik Des Kindergarten. Berlin: W. Lang, 1862. [ Pedagogics of theKindergarten. Trans.
Josephine Jarvis, New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1895.] Discussion of the theory of unity, interrelatedness of all educational experiences, the conditions of child development, and the kindergarten program. Describes in precise detail the use of the Gifts by children and the importance of songs, games, and movement.|
|84. || Mutter UndKose-Lieder. Wein und Liepzig: F. Seedel, 1883. [" The Mother
Play and Nursery Songs Trans.
Bertha von Marenholtz-Bulow. In The.
Kindergarten and Child Culture Papers, ed.
Henry Barnard. Hartford: Office of Barnard's American Journal of Education, 1890, pp. 227-350. Mottoes and Commentaries of Froebel's Mother Play. Trans.
Henriette R. Eliot.
Prose commentaries translated and introduction on Froebel's
philosophy by Susan E. Blow. New York: Appleton & Co., 1906.] The
poems, pictures, mottoes, fingerplays, and commentaries intended for
mothers to use with infants as a child development guide. This material is
the basis for part of the modern early childhood curriculum. Used by Froebel as the basis for his lectures to illustrate his theory.|