Maria Montessori (1870-1952)
Montessori built on the work of Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard and Edouard Seguine to
develop a child-centered approach to education. She created a program for young
children in the slums of Rome which became known as the Montessori Method.The innovations Montessori brought to early childhood education include the
belief that each child develops from within as an individual; and that a child must
be free to select and use materials with a minimum of adult interference for as long
as desired. She invented self-correcting materials that developed the senses, language, the intellect, and the muscles; encouraged the use of child-size, moveable
furniture; and the use of sensory materials to build the foundation for reading,
writing, and arithmetic. Montessori advocated a change in the role of the teacher
from a shaper of behavior to an observer of child development and the development of independence, self-care, and self-confidence through self-directed activities in an unhurried environment that was suited to the needs of the child.Elements of the Montessori Method and adaptations of Montessori materials
are used widely today in early childhood programs throughout the world. Montessori
provided insight into and respect for the ways in which young children learn.
|320. || The Montessori Method. Trans.
Anne E. George. New York: Frederick A.
Stokes, 1912; New York: Schoken Books, 1964. (repr.) A detailed presentation of Montessori's theory and practice of education. The introduction to the 1964 edition by
J. McVicker Hunt discusses the reasons for a
reexamination of the Montessori Method.|
|321. || Pedagogical Anthropology. Trans.
Frederic Taber Cooper. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1913. Describes the systematic study of children for
educational purposes and for developing philosophical principles of education. Discusses modern tendencies of anthropology and their relation to
pedagogy; the principles of general biology; the anatomy of the child in
detail; the biographical history of the pupil and his antecedents; and the
application of biometry to anthropology for the purpose of determining
the medial man. This is based on a series of lectures given at the University of Rome.|
|322. || The Advanced Montessori Method: The Montessori Elementary Material.
Arthur Livingston. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1917; Massachusetts: Bentley, 1964. (repr.) Describes the extension of the method for
the education of children from age 7 through 11. Discusses methods for
teaching grammar, reading, arithmetic, geometry, drawing, music, and|