Pioneers of Early Childhood Education: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide

By Barbara Ruth Peltzman | Go to book overview

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
The publication of Emile in 1762 called attention to the importance of the early childhood years and changed the history of education.Rousseau's contributions to education include the suggestion that young children need motor activity, firsthand experiences, and happy games to develop language, mathematical and sensory concepts. He believed in the natural goodness of children and opposed the artificial lifestyle of the times, especially the way children were raised as small adults. He suggested that young children be protected from society and allowed to engage in activities that were natural for children; children should be allowed to become fully developed or mature before exposing them to society; they should have the freedom to play and be spontaneous; and he advocated a study of how children develop at different ages as the basis for educational practice. Rousseau proposed that formal learning activities be delayed until age 12 and suggested that educators use motivating activities to ensure attention and interest. He believed that young children should gain self-acceptance and discipline from the natural consequences of things and activities.Rousseau's naturalism emphasized freedom, growth, interest, and activity as the basis for early education. His ideas were radically different from the eighteenth century concept of education which may be the reason that the application of Rousseau's ideas to classroom practice had to wait for others more involved with practice rather than theory.
PRIMARY SOURCES
411. émile, Ou de L'éducation en Oeuvres Completes. eds. Bernard Gagnebin and Marcel Raymond. Vol. 4. Bibliothéque de la Pléiade, Gallemard: Paris, 1959- 1969. [ Emilius: or a Traité of Education, Translated from the French of J.J. Rousseau, Citizen of Geneva. Edinburgh, Dickson & Elliot , 1773. émile: or Education. Trans. Barbara Foxley. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1911. émile for Today. Trans. William Boyd. London: Heinemann, 1956. The émile of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Trans. and ed. William Boyd William Boyd. New York: Teachers College Press, 1962. émile or on Education. Trans. Allan Bloom. New York: Basic Books, 1979.] Written as a novel, the book describes the life of a fictional child from birth to marriage. Provides a guide to raising a child in a natural way with the father as the tutor, guide, and mentor away from society, which Rousseau believed to be corrupting. As a result of émile, childhood began to be treated as a separate time of life and children were no longer expected to conform to adult styles of dress and standards of behavior. The Boyd and Bloom translations provide excellent notes and introductions.

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Pioneers of Early Childhood Education: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • References x
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Bibliography xvi
  • Johann Amos Comenius (1592-1670) 1
  • John Dewey (1859-1952) 3
  • Ella Victoria Dobbs (1866-1952) 17
  • Abigail Adams Eliot (1892-1992) 21
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel (1782-1852) 25
  • Arnold Lucius Gesell (1880-1961) 29
  • William Nicholas Hailmann (1836-1920) 33
  • Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924) 41
  • William Torrey Harris (1835-1908) and Susan E. Blow (1843-1916) 47
  • Elizabeth Harrison (1849-1927) 55
  • Patty Smith Hill (1868-1946) 59
  • Amy M. Hostler (1898-1987) 63
  • Leland B. Jacobs (1907-1992) 65
  • William Heard Kilpatrick (1871-1965) 67
  • Lucy Craft Laney (1854-1933) 71
  • John Locke (1632-1704) 73
  • Emma Jacobina Christiana Marwedel (1818-1893) 75
  • Margaret Mcmillan (1860-1931) and Rachel Mcmillan (1859-1917) 77
  • Lucy Sprague Mitchell (1878-1967) 79
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952) 83
  • Robert Owen (1771-1858) 85
  • Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (1804-1894) 87
  • Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) 91
  • Jean Piaget (1896-1980) 93
  • Caroline Pratt (1867-1954) 99
  • Alice Harvey Whiting Putnam (1841-1919) 101
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) 105
  • Alice Temple (1871-1946) 107
  • Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954) and the National Association of Colored Women 111
  • Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) 117
  • Evangeline H. Ward (1920-1985) 121
  • Lillian Weber (1917-1994) 125
  • Lucy Wheelock (1857-1946) 129
  • Kate Douglas Wiggin (1856-1923) 133
  • Appendix - A Chronological List 135
  • Bibliography 137
  • Index 139
  • About the Author *
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