Watt to change OSM regulations and the structure of the agency. Other
polarizing factors included congressional oversight activity, the extensive
litigation and difficulties in complying with court settlements, the Reagan
administrative presidency tactics and deregulation strategy, and the
Administration's unwillingness to provide the agency with additional
resources to fulfill its statutory mission and the requirements of court
orders. Apart from the environmental implications of this polarization and
political impasse, its net effect was a serious loss of the morale, competency, and legitimacy of the agency and its functional responsibilities.
Albert Reiss Jr., "Selecting Strategies of Social Control over Organizational Life,"
in Enforcing Regulation, ed.
Keith Hawkins and
John M. Thomas ( Boston, Mass.: Nijhoff, 1983), 23-25.
Eugene Bardach and
Robert A. Kagan, Going by the Book: The Problems of
Regulating Reasonableness ( Philadelphia, Penn.: Temple University Press, 1982), 207-8.
U.S. Congressional Budget Office, The Environmental Protection Agency: Overview of the Proposed 1984 Budget, 1984, 3.
George C. Eads and
Michael Fix, Relief or Reform: Reagan's Regulatory Dilemma
( Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1984), 194.
Testimony of Senator Patrick J. Leahy, EPA Oversight: One-Year Review, Joint
Hearings, House of Representatives, 97th Cong., 2d sess., 21 July 1982, 39.
B. Dan Wood, "Principals, Bureaucrats, and Responsiveness in Clean Air Enforcements," American Political Science Review 82 ( March 1988): 218-19.
Winston Harrington, and
William J. Vaughan, Enforcing Pollution Control Laws ( Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1986), 219.
GAO, Waste Water Dischargers Are Not Complying with EPA Pollution Control
Permits, RCED- 84-53, 2 December 1983.
EPA's Office of Research and Development and Related Issues. Hearing, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, 98th Cong., 2d sess., 14 March 1984, 106.
Office of Public Affairs, EPA, Environmental News, 16 December 1986, 3.
Summary of Enforcement Accomplishments, Fiscal Year 1986; EPA Office of
Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring, April 1987; Summary of Enforcement Accomplishments, Fiscal Year 1985; EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring, Washington, D.C., April 1986.
David B. Walker, "The Condition and Course of the System," in Administering
the New Federalism, ed.
Lewis G. Bender and
James A. Stever ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview
Press, 1986), 333-34.
Timothy J. Conlan, "Ambivalent Federalism: Intergovernmental Policy in the
Reagan Administration," in Administering the New Federalism, 16.
Michael Fix, "Transferring Regulatory Authority to the States," in The Reagan
Regulatory Strategy: An Assessment, ed.
George C. Eads and
Michael Fix ( Washington,
D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1984), 158-59.