'Twas for Cuba and our honor, To avenge our heroes slain, That victory wreathed our banner, When we fought the ships of Spain.
-- The Bounding Billow,
on board the U.S.S. Olympia, Manila Bay, June 1898.
Following the Civil War, the attention of the United States military was focused once more on the frontier. Also, as time went on, especially late in the century, a growing professionalism developed in both the army and navy, which corresponded with the growing modernization and technical culture apparent in society in general. Military publications reflected these trends. Even before 1861, the U.S. Army had established numerous forts for defense of pioneers on the westward trek. In March of 1849, for instance, a fort in the Dakota Territory, in present-day Wyoming, was purchased. Known as Fort Laramie, it was a way station for settlers en route to Utah and Oregon. To help alleviate the boredom of service there, several army officers founded a manuscript newspaper, called The Chugg Water Journal. Although only a few issues appeared in late 1849 running into 1850, in articles, poems, drawings, cartoons, and witticisms, readers possessed a unique source recounting life on a frontier fort. This was filled with details of military drill, scouting expeditions, hunting, panning for gold, and observing and listening to life on the post, including that of the women and children, especially those associated with the juvenile infirmary, near which the paper's offices were located, "within hearing distance."1
Another frontier paper was the Daily Telegraph at Fort Bridger in far western Wyoming. Printed by Hiram Brundage, a telegraph operator, it was decidedly