Tactics Used with Subordinates
Leaders rely most often on nine power tactics in employing their subordinateoriented power strategy. These tactics are training and orienting others, developing others, dispensing rewards, controlling decision criteria, legitimacy, organizational placement, using symbols, ritualism, and obligation. They are separate from the tactics leaders use toward superiors or peers with only one exception. We use incurring obligation about equally with peers and with subordinates.
The subordinate-directed tactics are less risky than those used within other strategic target groups. They concentrate more on traditional organizational systems. Subordinates base the tactics used with peers and superiors somewhat more on system aspects of power than on personal aspects. That is, subordinateoriented tactics rely more on power bases such as (a) legitimate position in the hierarchy, (b) routine patterns of behavior and relationships common in the specific organization environment, (c) control of resource-based rewards or the promise of reward, (d) control over decision parameters, (e) formal relationships, and (f) hierarchy and similar aspects of organizational life (see Barnard, 1948; Bell, 1975; Etzioni, 1961; and Winter, 1973).
Leaders using power in their downward-directed relationships rely more on traditional forms of power of force, authority, and manipulation. Interestingly, they also make limited use of the other power forms--persuasion, threat--promise, and influence. Individuals using these tactics behave in many ways that most of us would find common and acceptable. In two cases, however, the pattern is broken. Many organization members use developing others as well as training and orienting others tactics in their relations with subordinates. These two be-