How Business, Higher Education, Government, and Not-for-Profit Organizations Use Power
The people making up our organizations frequently involve themselves in using power. This is true whether the formal organization has a profit, an educational, a governmental, or community service orientation. In this chapter we discuss findings that shed new light on the specific power orientations workers routinely display in each of these classes of organizations. We will use four specific organizational classifications: business organizations, higher education organizations, government organizations (including personnel from local, state, and federal agencies), and nonprofit organizations. Data were collected from workers in each organization class. Table 9.1 shows this breakdown and data about the size of each cohort.
Persons who work in these organizations sometimes differ in the power tactics they use as well as in the kinds of power behavior they see as effective or ethical. Also, some similar power uses can be seen in our analysis of the power behavior of people in each classification of organization. This chapter summarizes pertinent data about frequency of use, effectiveness, ethics, and timing of use of each tactic by persons in each classification of organization studied. This analysis elaborates the major similarities and differences found. These data deal with