Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran

By James F. Rinehart | Go to book overview

critical to action by the movement. The outcome, arising out of disaster, was considered to be certain and the change it would engender was expected to be total and complete social salvation.

In all three cases the ancient idea of millenarianism was transformed largely according to the needs of society. Much like its transformation in the West, millenarianism moved from a magical base to a human base. It provoked the idea of social change through the efforts of man, not God.


NOTES
1.
Maxwell Taylor, The Fanatics: A Behavioural Approach to Political Violence ( London: Brassey's, 1991), 140.
2.
Ann Ruth Willner, The Spellbinders: Charismatic Political Leadership ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984), 18-19; Sylvia L. Thrupp, "Millennial Dreams in Action: A Report on the Conference Discussion," in Millennial Dreams in Action, ed. idem ( The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1962), 23.
3.
Taylor, 142-43.
4.
Emile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, translated from the French by Joseph Ward Swain ( London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1915; reprint, New York: Free Press, 1965), 474-79.
5.
F. P. Kilpatrick, "Problems of Perception in Extreme Situations", Human Organization 16 (Summer 1957): 21.
7.
Gary Wills, Certain Trumpets: The Call of Leaders ( New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), 17. The goal of the organization, group, or movement, is "also the equalizer between the leader and followers. The followers do not submit to the person of the leader. They join him or her in pursuit of the goal."
8.
Wallace, "Revitalization Movements", 274.
9.
Cohn, Revolutionary Millenarians, 60, 84-85.
10.
Pitirim A. Sorokin, Man and Society in Calamity: The Effects of War, Revolution, Famine, Pestilence upon Human Mind, Behavior, Social Organization and Cultural Life ( New York: Dutton, 1942; reprint, Westport, CT. Greenwood Press, 1968), 187.
11.
Barkun, Disaster and the Millennium, 181.
12.
Cohn, Revolutionary Millenarians, 85.
13.
Paul Wilkinson, Social Movement, ( New York: Praeger, 1971), 60.
14.
Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, ed. and introduced by Talcott Parsons (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1964), 358-59.
18.
Max Weber, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, vol. 2, ed. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), 1112-13.
19.
William H. Friedland, "For a Sociological Concept of Charisma", Social Forces 43 ( October 1964): 18-26.
20.
Ann Ruth Willner and Dorothy Willner, "The Rise and Role of Charismatic Leaders", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 358 ( March 1965), 82-84.
21.
Fairbank, The Great Chinese Revolution, 169-81.

-144-

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Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 12
  • 1 - Apocalyptic Prophecy to Millenarian Revolution 17
  • Notes 33
  • 2 - Imperialism and Upheaval: China, Mexico, and Iran 41
  • Notes 57
  • 3 - Preparatory Function 63
  • Notes 103
  • 4 - A Platforin for Leadership 117
  • Notes 144
  • 5 - The Therapeutic Function 151
  • Notes 168
  • Conclusion 173
  • Notes 178
  • Bibliography 179
  • Index 191
  • About the Author *
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