critical to action by the movement. The outcome, arising out of disaster, was considered to be certain and the change it would engender was expected to be total and complete social salvation.
In all three cases the ancient idea of millenarianism was transformed largely according to the needs of society. Much like its transformation in the West, millenarianism moved from a magical base to a human base. It provoked the idea of social change through the efforts of man, not God.