Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran

By James F. Rinehart | Go to book overview

At the beginning of the Iran-Iraq War in 1980, special courts known as "Cleansing Komitehs" were established to purge the armed forces in an attempt to achieve "ideological purity" among the country's defenders. 101.

It is common for revolutionary movements to consolidate their power by expelling those elements of the previous ruling regime and their supporters. Yet the pervasiveness and uniquely spiritual form of these efforts in the Chinese, Mexican, and Iranian cases exhibited a distinctive, religiouslike quality representing an effort to achieve true social catharsis rather than simply an expulsion of old enemies.

The suffering, disorientation, dislocation, and social stress engendered by foreign imperialism and domination created conditions in all three of these cases that required a collective form of therapy, a mass cure for the problems encountered by these societies. Millenarianism functioned as a mitigating factor in the capacity of the peoples of these societies (1) to cope with the disastrous consequences of Western imperialism by projecting their problems onto a broader screen that helped to clarify and objectify their social problems, (2) to reestablish their collective identity, and (3) to thoroughly purge and cleanse themselves of the burden of their humiliations, frustrations, indignation, and personal guilt in an effective act of mass catharsis.


NOTES
1.
Bruce Lincoln, ed., Religion, Rebellion, Revolution ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985), 275; see also Adas, 187.
2.
Hobsbawm, Primitive Rebels, 59.
3.
John A. Honigmann, "Culture Patterns and Human Stress: A Study in Social Psychiatry", Psychiatry 13 ( 1950): 31.
4.
Fairbank, The Great Chinese Revolution, 229.
5.
Ibidx., 247.
6.
Mao Tse-tung, "Provisional Marriage Regulations", decrees of the First Session of the Central Executive Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic, January 28, 1931, in Schram, 228-29.
7.
Chesneaux, Peasant Revolt in China, 113.
8.
Eisenstadt, 230.
9.
Mao Tse-tung, "The Function of Dictatorship in the Transformation of Society", Selected Works, 4, 418-19.
10.
Meisner, 120-21. The use of the term "ascetic" here intentionally takes on a religious like character. "Ascetic values, however, are rarely ends unto themselves, but rather are usually seen as means to serve higher interests and attain ultimate goals, as such goals may be defined in a comprehensive, religious, or political ideology." Meisner compares Mao ascetic values to those of the Calvinist saints, who "understood as an ethical obligation to serve the glory of God, for, according to Calvinist ideology, a transcendental and inscrutable God had decreed that it was the duty of all men to labor to establish the Kingdom of God on earth." Cf. Michael Waltzer, The Revolution of the Saints ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965).
11.
Meisner, 120-21.

-168-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 12
  • 1 - Apocalyptic Prophecy to Millenarian Revolution 17
  • Notes 33
  • 2 - Imperialism and Upheaval: China, Mexico, and Iran 41
  • Notes 57
  • 3 - Preparatory Function 63
  • Notes 103
  • 4 - A Platforin for Leadership 117
  • Notes 144
  • 5 - The Therapeutic Function 151
  • Notes 168
  • Conclusion 173
  • Notes 178
  • Bibliography 179
  • Index 191
  • About the Author *
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 194

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.