I am indebted to numerous people for supporting me in the completion of this project. The members of my University of Wyoming writing group deserve special recognition for hours of editing and much encouragement: especially Elizabeth Grubgeld, Gladys Crane, Jean Schaefer, and Susan Dickman. I also wish to thank the following scholars for their valuable advice and support: Henry H. H. Remak, Anne Hedin, Emil Snyder, Matei Calinescu, Alvin Rosenfeld, Joan Miriam Ringelheim, Vera Laska, Sybil Milton, the staff of the Leo Baeck Institute, Susan Pentlin and Jim Sylwester. Others who made a big difference include Bella and George Savran, Sylvia Crocker, Carrie Delgado, and Pat Walsh. I also thank the Department of Modern and Classical Languages at the University of Wyoming for the teaching position which financed the final stages of this writing, and I thank departmental secretaries Dawn Johnson and Alice Leseberg, as well as my colleague Christine Jensen, for much typing and editing assistance. Betty King also merits a warm acknowledgment for editing. I also acknowledge the American Association of University Women and the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, which contributed financially to the early stages of the research for this book. Without the help of all these people and others, this book might still be fragments lying in a drawer. Its flaws, however, are entirely my responsibility.