the reason may have more to do with the conditioning outlined by Chodorow than with morality, the conceptual framework adopted by many memoirists. This ability has origins, if Chodorow is right, in the oppressive situation of compulsory primary parenting by women. The purpose of this analysis is not to promote the further exploitation by women as compulsory mothers, although at first glance this oppression seems to have survival benefits in extreme situations. It makes more sense to argue that Holocaust literature makes a strong case for men to be active fathers, not only because it would free women to be more autonomous, but also because primary parenting by men would most likely enable males to develop the same capacity for friendship and empathy that women now have in greater numbers. Not only because of the next Holocaust and women's liberation, but because of the intense value now attached to world peace, the way in which human beings relate to each other has become critical. If the greater relational capacities of women could be shared by men, the world would never be the same.