mands that scholars put Indians at the center of Indian history echoed across scholarly meetings. Although difficult, that task is by no means impossible, as recent studies have shown, and continuing emphasis needs to be placed on that approach. Some of the newest and most stimulating work combines ecological and ethnological data with a truly impressive clarification of Indian circumstances. All of these approaches provide opportunity for historians to develop theses for an ever clearer understanding of the past. One or some combination of them may provide an overall method or pattern that will help to explain the varied, complex, and even contradictory story of Indians in the United States.