political context in which the subject operated. The frontier army often acted, for instance, as agents for the expanding capitalists of the urban Northeast, and recent biographies of Sheridan by Paul Andrew Hutton and of William B. Hazen by Marvin Kroeker have delineated those business connections in detail. The impact of the army on Indian policy was emphasized by Richard Ellis in his biography of John Pope and by John Bailey in his work on Alfred Terry. The important contribution of the army to science is explored in Joseph C. Porter's biography of John G. Bourke. There is still a need for solid biographies of important figures like George Crook, Nelson Miles, Christopher C. Augur, William S. Harney, and Ranald S. Mackenzie.51
With public and scholarly interest in military history on the rise in the late 1980s, more strong publications on frontier military subjects will undoubtedly appear. A new generation of historians, building on the impressive work of Utley, Prucha, Goetzmann, and others, will bring new techniques and new fields of inquiry to military studies. Historians from the late 1960s on have exhibited more sympathy for the plight of the Indians and have been far less ethnocentric in their writing but have still failed, in the most part, to use ethno-historical data in their publications. Increased use of such materials, already evident in the work of Thomas Dunlay and James Haley, will better explain the nature of Western campaigns. The use of quantification techniques should prove rewarding to future military studies. The frontier army was so small and enlistment records are so good that a solid profile of the army could be compiled with the aid of a computer. It is also important for writers to place the frontier army in a strong national and international context. Comparative studies of the American military frontier with those of India or South Africa should prove quite revealing. More study is also needed on the multifaceted and diverse roles performed by the military on the frontier. Studies like that of Darlis Miller and Robert Frazer on the economic and social impact of the military on New Mexico need to be done for other areas. There is every reason to expect that this, one of the oldest fields of historical inquiry in the nation, will continue to mature in terms of technique and approach and will remain lively and exciting.