America 2: Classic Modernism

The war had brought to the United States not only Schoenberg and Stravinsky but also Wolpe, Hindemith, Krenek, Martinů, and a host of other composers, leaving Europe comparatively bereft of senior figures. Another difference between the continents was that North America had not suffered enemy occupation or the bombing of cities. Perhaps both factors played a part in the alternative form that innovation took on the western side of the Atlantic, where there was more respect for the established masters, less feeling that music could or should be built anew. Schoenberg's own example, voiced in his words and in his music, was one of rooted growth. A late prose fragment, dating from 1950, begins by restating a thought constant in his writings: 'I am at least as conservative as Edison and Ford have been. But I am, unfortunately, not quite as progressive as they were in their own fields." 1His works of his last years, while retasting the freedom and edge of the Erwartung period, by no means betray his lifelong commitment to orderly development and integrity of voice.

The orderliness, at least, communicated itself to many of his American pupils and followers, among whom Milton Babbitt (b. 1916) -- a follower, never a pupil -- soon became one of the leading exponents of twelve-note music, both as a composer and as a professor at Princeton University, where his classes included James K. Randall (b. 1929), Donald Martino (b. 1931), Peter Westergaard (b. 1931), and Fred Lerdahl (b. 1943); Stephen Sondheim (b. 1930) was also a student. Babbitt's contemporary George Perle (b. 1915) promoted the same cause of rational twelve-note composition through his work as a teacher, theorist, and composer. His classic textbook Serial Composition and Atonality ( 1962) was followed fifteen years later by TwelveTone Tonality, an introduction to his own system, by which a twelve-note series structures relationships among notes, intervals and chords, allowing for the possibility of key feeling, and even diatonic triads, within totally chromatic music; his musical output, chiefly of instrumental works, includes sequences of wind quintets and of string quartets. From the same generation, Leon Kirchner (b. 1919), who studied with Schoenberg in Los Angeles, developed into a twelve-note composer able, like his teacher, to command the rhetoric of tonal symphonic music. His music, too, is mostly for orchestra (two piano concertos and a concerto for violin and cello with wind and percussion) or chamber ensemble (three quartets). One might also see the later music of Stravinsky, a US citizen since 1945, within the con-

____________________
1
My Attitude towards Politics, in H. H. Stuckenschmidt, Schoenberg:His Life, Work and World ( London, 1977), 551-2.

-50-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Modern Music and After
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Music Acknowledgements v
  • Contents xi
  • Prelude xiii
  • Part I - Beginning Again: from 1945 to the Early 1960s 1
  • Europe 1: Commencement, 1945-1951 3
  • America 1: Silencing Music, 1946-1952 21
  • Europe 2: Total Organization, 1949-1954 29
  • America 2: Classic Modernism 50
  • Europe 3: Achievement, 1953-1957 70
  • America 3: After Silence, 1952-1961 94
  • Europe 4: Mobile Form, 1956-1962 104
  • Elder Responses 116
  • Europe 5: Disintegrations,1959-1964 135
  • Part II - Six Waves and Five Masters: the 1960s and 1970s 149
  • Of Elsewhen and Elsewhere 151
  • Music Theatre 171
  • Politics 185
  • Virtuosity and Improvisation 191
  • Computer Music 207
  • Minimalism and Melody 209
  • Five Masters 225
  • Part III - Many Rivers: the 1980s and 1990s 237
  • Strings and Knots 239
  • Postlude 328
  • Repertory 330
  • Index 363
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 373

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.