Chronology
19458 MayUnconditional surrender of German armed forces
17 July-2 Aug.Potsdam conference
19471 Jan.Fusion of British and US zones into 'Bi-zone'
5 JuneLaunch of European Recovery Programme ('Mar-
shall Plan')
194820 JuneCurrency Reform in three Western zones
24 JuneBeginning of Berlin Blockade
19494 Apr.Formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO)
12 MayEnd of Berlin Blockade
23 MayBasic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany
(FRG) comes into force
14 Aug.First Bundestag election
15 Sept.Konrad Adenauer elected Chancellor
7 Oct.Constitution of German Democratic Republic
(GDR) adopted
19518 Apr.Creation of European Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC), with FRG as a member
19523 March'Stalin Note' proposing peace treaty with Germany
195317 JuneUprising in GDR
195423 Oct.Paris Treaties, extending NATO membership to
FRG
195522 Sept.Promulgation of 'Hallstein Doctrine'
195614-15 Feb.20th Congress of Communist Party of the Soviet
Union
23 Oct.-4 Nov.Revolution in Hungary, crushed by Soviet forces
195725 Mar.Signature of Treaties of Rome, creating European
Economic Community (EEC)
195827 Nov.Khrushchev's Berlin Ultimatum, demanding de-
militarization of West Berlin
19593 JuneLaw on final phase of collectivization of agriculture
in GDR
15 Nov.Social Democratic Party (SPD) adopts new pro-
gramme at Bad Godesberg
196113 Aug.Construction of Berlin Wall
196222 Oct.-9 Nov.Cuban Missile Crisis
26 Oct.Beginning of Spiegel affair
196322 Jan.Signature of Elys Treaty between FRG and
France
15 JulyNew Economic System proclaimed in GDR
16 Oct.Konrad Adenauer resigns as Chancellor. Succeeded
by Ludwig Erhard
196630 Nov.-1 Dec.Resignation of Erhard. Succeeded by Kurt-Georg
Kiesenger at head of Great Coalition
196720 Feb.New Citizenship Law in GDR
2 JuneShooting of Berlin student Benno Ohnesorg leads
to growth of Extra-Parliamentary Opposition (APO)
196830 MayEmergency Legislation passed
1 JulySignature of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
21 Aug.Prague Spring crushed by Warsaw Pact invasion
19693 MayGustav Heinemann elected President of FRG
28 Sept.Bundestag election gives narrow majority to SPD
and FDP
21 Oct.Willy Brandt elected Chancellor
197019 Mar.Willy Brandt visits Erfurt (GDR)
12 Aug.Signature of Moscow Treaty between FRG and
USSR
7 Dec.Brandt in Warsaw for signature of FRG-Polish
treaty
19713 MayErich Honecker succeeds Walter Ulbricht as First
Secretary of Socialist Unity Party (SED)
3 Sept.Four-Power Agreement on Berlin
197228 Jan.'Decree on Extremists'
27 Apr.Failure of 'constructive vote of no confidence'
against Brandt
19 Nov.Bundestag election. Increased majority for Brandt
coalition
21 Dec.Signature of Basic Treaty between FRG and GDR
197317 Oct.First 'oil shock'; Arab OPEC members restrict
exports
197415 MayHelmut Schmidt elected Chancellor after resigna-
tion of Brandt
7 Oct.New GDR constitution
19751 Aug.Ratification of agreement of Conference on Secur-
ity and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) ('Helsinki
Final Act')
197713-18 Oct.Hijacking of Lufthansa airliner at Mogadishu
19 Oct.Kidnapped employers' president Hanns Martin
Schleyer found dead
19785 Dec.Agreement on European Monetary System
197912 Dec.NATO 'twin-track' decision in response to station-
ing of Soviet SS-20 missiles
198111-13 Dec.Schmidt-Honecker summit in GDR
198217 Sept.Resignation of FDP ministers from Schmidt gov-
ernment
1 Oct.Bundestag elects Helmut Kohl as Chancellor
19836 Mar.Bundestag election confirms Helmut Kohl as
Chancellor
198423 MayRichard von Weizsäcker elected Federal President
198512 Mar.Mikhail Gorbachev becomes First Secretary of
CPSU
19877-11 Sept.Visit by Honecker to FRG
8 Dec.USA and USSR agree on elimination of medium-
and short-range nuclear weapons ('INF Treaty')
19897 MayRigged local elections in GDR lead to protests
4 JuneTiananmen Square massacre in Pekin
18 JuneVictory for Solidarnósc candidates in Polish elections
11 Sept.Hungary opens Austrian frontier for GDR citizens
5 Oct.Gorbachev visits East Berlin for GDR 40th anni-
versary celebrations
9 Oct.Mass demonstration in Leipzig passes off peace-
fully
18 Oct.Honecker resigns, succeeded by Egon Krenz
9 Nov.Berlin Wall opened
28 Nov.Kohl's Ten-Point Programme on German unifica-
tion
7 Dec.First meeting of GDR Round Table
199018 Mar.First free elections to GDR Volkskammer
1 JulyGerman Economic and Monetary Union comes into
force
12 Sept.'Two-plus-Four' Treaty signed
3 Oct.German Unification Treaty comes into force
2 Dec.All-German elections. Victory for Kohl
199120 JuneBundestag votes to move seat of government from
Bonn to Berlin
199222-7 Aug.Rioting against asylum-seekers in Rostock
199313 Mar.Solidarity Pact launched to increase transfers to
Eastern Länder
26 MayAmendment to Basic Law on right to asylum
199412 JulyFederal Constitutional Court approves 'out-of-area'
German military operations
16 Oct.Bundestag election. Kohl government narrowly
re-elected
19951 Jan.Treuhandanstalt wound up
8 May50th anniversary of VE Day commemorated as
liberation

-xi-

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German Politics, 1945-1995
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgements vi
  • Contents vii
  • Abbreviations viii
  • Chronology xi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Unified, but not United 3
  • 3 - The Adenauer Era 51
  • 4 - The Second Foundation of the Federal Republic 71
  • 5 - The Other Germany 90
  • 6 - Ostpolitik 108
  • 7 - Modell Deutschland 129
  • 8 - A New Germany 155
  • Conclusion 183
  • Appendix I. Tables of Election Results 187
  • Appendix II. Figure of Economic Performance 189
  • Suggestions for Further Reading 190
  • Index 193
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