Foundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in Psychology

By Karen Strohm Kitchener | Go to book overview

Chapter 3
Foundational Principles for Thinking Well

In the previous chapter ethical principles were introduced as general norms that provide a rationale for the standards in the APA ethics code. These principles, nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, fidelity, and justice, are derived from the "common morality" ( Beauchamp & Childress, 1994, p. 102) that undergirds the practice of psychology. In other words, when psychologists are conducting research or therapy ethically, these are the implicit principles they share. Similarly, they appear to be the principles that tacitly guided the practice of ethical psychologists prior to the writing of the First Ethical Standards of Psychologists ( APA, 1953). In other words, they were common norms. In this sense, they provide the foundation or justification for all subsequent codes, including the current one. If, for example, a standard was written that advocated or led to injustice, we could judge it to be a poor standard. In the following pages, each of these principles is articulated in greater detail and its foundational nature further explored.

As noted in chapter 2, foundational principles are not a panacea for solving all ethical problems. This should not be a surprise to a profession that counts problem solving as an area of critical investigation. Those writing in the area of problem solving ( Churchman, 1971, Simon, 1976, Wood, 1983) have long acknowledged that there are some "real-world" or "ill-structured" problems that are difficult to solve and that require complex judgment that goes well beyond the use of deductive logic ( King & Kitchener, 1994; K. S. Kitchener & Kitchener, 1981). Accordingly, a discussion of using ethical principles and ethical codes to make reasoned judgments in light of the uncertainty involved in ethical decisions is the second focus of this chapter.


FOUNDATIONAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

Nonmaleficence

Nonmaleficence means not causing others harm. It finds its roots in the history of

-21-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Foundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 318

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.