Both population and high-risk behavioral intervention approaches are addressed in Part 4 of this volume. Based on his experience from teaching behavior change, Gerjo Kok and his colleagues describe in detail "Health education at the individual level" (chap. 13). Brian Oldenburg and his collaborators have developed particular skills in how to make doctors become more efficient in communicating their knowledge about prevention to patients. This is thoroughly described in the chapter "Modification of health behavior and lifestyle mediated by physicians" (chap. 14). Gunilla Burell has long experience and particular skills in teaching coronary patients how to cope with stressors and reduce the stresses in their lives. She relates her and other researchers' experiences to disease outcome in her chapter, "Behavioral medicine approach to secondary prevention" (chap. 15). Kok, Oldenburg, and Burell each have vast experience in communicating behavior change on an individual level, and each is a master of the scientific literature in the field.
Two examples of the community approach are also described. Pekka Puska, initiator and leader for many years of the North Karelia Project, describes the behavioral experiences and new knowledge gained from carrying out this pioneer community project (chap. 16). Michael O'Connor (chap. 17) has gathered experience with community prevention from a different angle -- that of politicians. In his chapter on "Health public policy: Getting governments onside," he addresses how public and political structures can be successfully approached so that these potentially powerful forces can be used to improve the health of populations and nations.
In summary, this volume examines the social environment and its potentials for preventive actions, reviews the psychosocial and biobehavioral mechanisms involved in these effects, and describes concrete and practical implementations of behavioral medicine knowledge as they have been applied to CHD.