Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination

By Stuart Oskamp | Go to book overview
4.
One of the few exceptions to this generalization occurred in the European witch trials of the 16th and 17th centuries. It is estimated that, between 1560 and 1680, approximately 3,000 European women were tortured and put to death for witchcraft ( Monter, 1996).
5.
For an intermediate position, see Landrine, Klonoff, Alcaraz, Scott, and Wilkins ( 1995).
6.
For a more in-depth discussion of the empirical implications of this evolutionary reasoning, see Sidanius and Pratto ( 1999).

REFERENCES

Almquist E. M. ( 1975). "Untangling the effects of race and sex: The disadvantaged status of Black women". Social Science Quarterly, 56, 129-142.

Ayres I. ( 1995). "Further evidence of discrimination in new car negotiations and estimates of its cause". Michigan Law Review, 94, 109-147.

Ayres I., & Siegelman P. ( 1995). "Race and gender discrimination in bargaining for a new car". American Economic Review, 85, 304-322.

Bachofen J. J. ( 1969). Das Mutterrecht: eine Untersuchung uber die Gynaikokratie der altem Welt nach ihrer religiosen und rechlichen Natur. Bruxelles: Culture et Civilisation. (Original work published 1861)

Beale F. ( 1970). Double jeopardy: To be Black and female. In T. Cade (Ed.), The Black woman (pp. 90-100). New York: New American Library.

Benschop Y., & Doorewaard H. ( 1998). "Covered by equality: The gender subtext of organizations". Organization Studies, 19, 787-805.

Betzig L. ( 1993). Sex, succession, and stratification in the first six civilizations: How powerful men reproduced, passed power on to their sons, and used power to defend their wealth, women and children. In L. Ellis (Ed.), Social stratification and socioeconomic inequality: A comparative biosocial analysis (pp. 37-74). New York: Praeger.

Bond J. C., & Perry P. ( 1970). Is the Black male castrated? In T. Cade (Ed.), The Black woman (pp. 115-118). New York: New American Library.

Bowen W. G., & Bok D. ( 1998). The shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Buss D. M. ( 1996). Sexual conflict: Evolutionary insights into feminism and the "battle of the sexes." In D. M. Buss & N. M. Malamuth (Eds.), Sex, power and conflict: Evolutionary and feminist perspectives (pp. 296-318). New York: Oxford University Press.

Caplovitz D. ( 1963). The poor pay more. New York: Free Press.

Chow E. N. ( 1987). "The develpment of feminist consciousness among Asian American women". Gender and Society, 3, 284-299.

Cole D. P., & Gittens M. ( 1995). Report of the commission on systemic racism in the Ontario criminal justice system. Toronto: Queen's Printer of Ontario.

Collier J. F., & Yanagisako S. J. (Eds.). ( 1987). Gender and kinship: Essays toward a unified analysis. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

de R. Z. Beijl ( 1990). Discrimination of migrant workers in Western Europe. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office.

Dworkin A. ( 1974). Woman hating. New York: Dutton.

Eagly A. H. ( 1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role explanation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Eisler R., & Loye D. ( 1983). "The failure of liberalism: A reassessment of ideology from a new feminine-masculine perspective". Political Psychology, 4, 469-475.

Ekehammar B. ( 1985). "Sex differences in socio-political attitudes revisited". Educational Studies, 11, 3-9.

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