Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination

By Stuart Oskamp | Go to book overview

believe that each of these strategies is likely to be employed at some time in some situations by targets of prejudice who are attempting to cope with their predicament.

Our intent here has been to outline what social psychological theories predict that targets can do to combat prejudice in prejudicial interactions, rather than to endorse a particular type or set of strategies. The risks and benefits of these various approaches to prejudice reduction are ultimately borne by the targets.


REFERENCES

Allison S. T., Mackie D. M., & Messick D. M. ( 1996). "Outcome biases in social perception: Implications for dispositional inferences, attitude change, stereotypes, and social behavior". Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 53-93.

Allport G. W. ( 1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Bandura A. ( 1982). "Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency". American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.

Berry J. W. ( 1980). "Psychology of acculturation: Understanding individuals moving between cultures". In R. Brislin (Ed.), Applied cross-cultural psychology (pp. 232-253). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Bourhis R. Y. ( 1979). "Language and ethnic interaction: A social psychological approach". In H. Giles & B. Saint-Jacques (Eds.), Language and ethnic relations (pp. 117-141). Oxford, England: Pergamon.

Bourhis R. Y., & Giles H. ( 1977). The language of intergroup distinctiveness. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity, and intergroup relations (pp. 119-135). London: Academic Press.

Brewer M. B. ( 1996). "When contact is not enough: Social identity and intergroup cooperation". International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20, 291-303.

Brewer M. B., Ho H., Lee J., & Miller N. ( 1987). "Social identity and social distance among Hong Kong schoolchildren". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 156-165.

Brown R. ( 1995). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Carnegie D. ( 1937). How to win friends and influence people. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Chin M. G., & McClintock C. G. ( 1993). "The effects of intergroup discrimination and social values on level of self-esteem in the minimal group paradigm". European Journal of Social Psychology, 23, 63-75, Cohen S., & Wills T. A. ( 1985). "Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis". Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357.

Crandall C. S., & Martinez R. ( 1996). "Culture, ideology, and antifat attitudes". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1165-1176.

Crocker J., & Major B. ( 1989). "Social stigma and self-esteem: The Self-protective properties of stigma". Psychological Review, 96, 608-630.

Crocker J., Cornwell B., & Major B. ( 1993). "The stigma of overweight: Affective consequences of attributional ambiguity". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 60-70.

Crocker J., Major B., & Steele C. ( 1998). "Social stigma". In D. T. Gilbert & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology ( 4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 504-553). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

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