other. When the controversy and problem-solving negotiation procedures are used skillfully, such conflicts tend to result in higher-level reasoning, the utilization of diverse perspectives, creative insights, synthesis of different positions, high-quality and novel solutions, and trusting, supportive, and caring relationships. To maintain the cooperative community, therefore, constructive conflict resolution procedures must be taught to all school members.
To guide and direct the cooperation and constructive conflict resolution, civic values must be inculcated in all school members. Civic values that highlight the need to work together toward the common good, maximize joint (not individual) benefits, and seek the "truth" through the clash of adverse positions, are the glue that holds the school together; and they define how members should act toward each other.
While each of the three Cs may be discussed and implemented separately, together they represent a gestalt in which each enhances and promotes the others. Together the three Cs may create schools where prejudices and discrimination are reduced, and children and youth learn and develop in positive and healthy ways.
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