Neurobehavioral Plasticity: Learning, Development, and Response to Brain Insults

By Norman E. Spear; Linda P. Spear et al. | Go to book overview

15
Stress, Stress Hormones, Kindling, and Neural Plasticity

Béla Bohus University of Groningen

Georgia A. Cottrell University of Utrecht

Csaba Nyakas Hans J. A. Beldhuis Paul G. M. Luiten University of Groningen

The theory of stress was developed as being of a merely endocrine character and suggested the involvement of noxious stimuli of physical or chemical nature as stressors ( Selye, 1935). Subsequent research demonstrated that psychological stimuli were as strong activators of the neuroendocrine system as the physical ones ( Mason, 1968) and provided ample evidence for the involvement of brain and behavioral mechanisms in the organization of stress responses ( Mason, 1971). At the same time, it became clear that the brain is an important target of stress hormones. Following the first report by Torda and Wolff ( 1952), a number of investigations suggested that stress hormones like adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and adrenocortical steroids ( Woodbury, 1958) profoundly influence brain excitability. From the early 1960s a vast amount of literature supported the view that behavioral plasticity as defined by studies of learning and memory processes is influenced by stress hormones. Following investigations about the role of adrenal cortical hormones and ACTH and related peptides in adaptive behaviors (e.g., Bohus & De Wied, 1980), increasing interest was directed toward the involvement of adrenal catecholamines and a novel generation of stress hormones like vasopressin, oxytocin, prolactin, and endorphins in learning and memory processes (e.g., Martinez & Kesner, 1991).

Neuronal plasticity assuring for adequate functioning of an individual (animal and human) in the continuously changing environment represents

-263-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Neurobehavioral Plasticity: Learning, Development, and Response to Brain Insults
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 472

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.