Television Critical Viewing Skills Education: Major Media Literacy Projects in the United States and Selected Countries

By James A. Brown | Go to book overview

and post-structuralism. He nicely charted the progression from "emphasis on media context, to the creative work, to the message imbedded in that work, to a focus upon the concept of audience and, finally, to the real audience" (p. 4). Horace Newcomb ( 1986) and others have exhorted colleagues not to focus too narrowly on one or other path of analysis but to bring all to bear on the complex challenge of studying media.

Media educators ought heed their recommendation to look to the collective findings of researchers with variant theories and methodologies, to develop an increasingly comprehensive and authentic analysis of media.

This chapter's survey of the foundations of media literacy studies leads to more specific exploration of media systems and education in chapter 2. Guidelines for media education programs (set apart from the previous text) are merged with further guidelines developed in the next chapter; they constitute a list of criteria at the end of that chapter. Those criteria are applied (in Part III) to CVS projects worldwide that are described in Part II.


NOTES
1
For a readable analysis applied to media see McAnany and Williams ( 1965, pp. 42-65), "II: The Language of Film."
2
See Fiske and Hartley, ( 1978, p. 37); d. Worth ( 1981, chapters 1 and 2).
3
From notes taken during lecture by George Gerbner at a national conference on topic of "Children and Television: Implications for Education," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 4-7, 1979. See Gerbner ( 1981, pp. 173- 178).
4
For a brief chronological description see Anderson ( 1983). The International Meeting on Film and Television Teaching, organized in 1962 by UNESCO in Norway, was reported in Hodgkinson ( 1964), including reprints of major papers presented.
5
During the first two decades of syndicating television programs overseas, American distributors' earnings leaped from $15 million ( 1958) to more than $230 million ( 1977). In the late 1970s the United States exported 150,000 hours of programs annually, while the United Kingdom and France each sold 20,000 hours abroad each year; West Germany sold 6,000 hours a year.
6
See Lee ( 1981, pp. 58-59) and Murray ( 1980, pp. 58-66). U.S. television program distributors earned two-thirds of their overseas profits from four industrialized nations -- from Canada 19%, Australia 18%, Japan 17%, and England 12%. The final third of profits came from all other countries, with Brazil, France, and West Germany the major sources of remaining profitability for U.S. TV exports.

-33-

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