ence anxious responding in both clinical ( Carter, Hollon, Carson, & Shelton, 1995; Rapee, Mattick, & Murrell, 1986; Sanderson, Rapee, & Barlow, 1989) and nonclinical populations ( Schmidt & Telch, 1994; Telch et al., 1996). Evaluation of other dispositional variables (e.g., sex, medical comorbidity), contextual factors (e.g., perceived control), and their interaction with AS may more fully elucidate the relation between psychological parameters and panic.
These longitudinal studies consistently implicate AS in the psychopathogenicity of panic and strongly suggest that AS is a risk factor instead of merely an epiphenomenon of developing panic. Because cognitive behavioral therapy can significantly reduce AS ( Bruce et al., 1995; Schmidt et al., 1997), this offers an exciting possibility for the implementation of a primary prevention intervention that can effectively anticipate and prevent anxiety and panic reactions among high-risk individuals.
This research was supported by USUHS Grant R072CF. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private ones of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Department of Defense, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, or the U. S, Air Force Academy.
Balon R., Pohl R., Yerigani V. K., Rainey J. M., & Berchou R. ( 1988). "Follow-up study of control subjects with lactate-and isoproterenol-induced panic attacks". American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 238-241.
Breslau N., & Davis G. C. ( 1993). "Migraine, physical health and psychiatric disorder: A prospective epiderniologic study in young adults". Journal of Psychiatric Research, 27, 211-221.
Bruce T. J., Spiegel D. A., Gregg S. F., & Nuzzarello A. ( 1995). "Predictors of alprazolarn discontinuation with and without cognitive behavior therapy in panic disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry, 152,1156-1160.
Carter M. M., Hollon S. D., Carson R., & Shelton R. C. ( 1995) "Effects of a safe person on induced distress following a biological challenge in panic disorder with agoraphobia". Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 156-163.
Donnell C. D., & McNally R. J. ( 1990). "Anxiety sensitivity and panic attacks in a nonclinical population". Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 83-85.
Eaton W. W., & Keyl P. M. ( 1990). "Risk factors for the onset of diagnostic interview schedule/DSM-III agoraphobia in a prospective, population-based study". Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 819-824.