Stereotype Activation and Inhibition

By Robert S. Wyer Jr. | Go to book overview

model may account for much of the variation in people's tendencies to express negative, inaccurate, or politically sensitive stereotypes. But whether the same processes operate for positive stereotypes, and whether the inhibitory factors depicted in their model require controlled processing, is less clear. On the latter point, Wilson and Brekke ( 1994), for example, acknowledged the possibility that correcting for a variety of "mental contaminations," including social categories, might involve "processes that are less conscious and deliberate and that succeed in preventing contamination before it has had a chance to occur" (p. 134). Bodenhausen and Macrae's integrative model makes sense of much of the stereotyping literature, and in the questions it leaves unanswered lays the groundwork for a rich variety of needed additional research.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Some of the research described in this chapter was supported by NIMH grant #R29MH48844 to the second author.


REFERENCES

Abramson P. E., Goldberg P. A., Greenberg J. H., & Abramson U. M. ( 1977). "The talking platypus phenomenon: Competency ratings as a function of sex and professional status". Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2, 114-124.

Allport G. W. ( 1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Asch S. E. ( 1946). "Forming impressions of personality". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41, 258-290.

Ashmore R. D., & Del F. K Boca. ( 1981). "Conceptual approaches to stereotypes and stereotyping". In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.)., Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 1-35). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Biernat M. ( 1995). "The shifting standards model: Implications of stereotype accuracy for social judgment". In Y. T. Lee, L. Jussim, & C. McCauley (Eds.), Stereotypes: Perspectives on accuracy and inaccuracy (pp. 87-114). Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.

Biernat M., & Kobrynowicz D. (1997a). "Gender- and race-based standards of competence: Lower minimum standards but higher ability standards for devalued groups". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 544-557.

Biernat M., & Kobrynowicz D. ( 1997b). Shifting standards model and the assimilation and contrast of judgments to group stereotypes. Manuscript under review.

Biernat M. & Manis M. ( 1994). "Shifting standards and stereotype-based judgments". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 5-20.

Biernat M., Manis M., & Nelson T. E. ( 1991). "Stereotypes and standards of judgment". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 485-499.

Biernat M., Vescio T. K., & Manis M. ( 1998). "Judging and behaving toward members of stereotyped groups: A shifting standards perspective". In C. Sedikides, J. Schopler, & C. Insko (Eds.), Intergroup cognition and intergroup behavior (pp. 151-175). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Blair I. V., & Banaji M. R. ( 1996). "Automatic and controlled processes in stereotype priming". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1142-1163.

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