Global and Multi-National Advertising

By Basil G. Englis | Go to book overview

eating. Knowledge of the activity orientation would be useful in the considerations of how to position the restaurant chain.

Marketers have likely advanced beyond the obvious cross-cultural blunders caused by language differences and custom. More subtle blunders are still possible and mistakes that relate to implicitly held beliefs may not be so easy to discern. Through a multimethod research process, the core value orientations of a culture can be investigated such that a product or service can be marketed in the most advantageous way in a particular society.


SUMMARY

This chapter clarifies the meanings of several concepts that use the term value, but are different entities. Personal values are beliefs held by individuals and are generally conceptions of the way one ought to act. These personal values may show a great variation among members of a culture, particularly in very loose, heterogeneous cultures such as the United States. Some personal values are part of the teachings of a society; there may be less variation among members of a society with regard to these culturally taught values. The term cultural values, therefore, can be used to describe personal values that are widely held by members of a society. Personal values, whether idiosyncratic or cultural, should be distinguished from cultural value orientations. Value orientations are the core beliefs of the culture and deal with human relationships with one another and with the world around them.

This chapter stresses that a knowledge of the value orientations of a society will be important for those who wish to market goods or services in that culture. Value orientations can affect consumption in profound and basic ways and a marketing and communication plan will need to coincide with these basic beliefs. A multimethod research approach will be a useful in the investigation of the value orientations of a culture.


REFERENCES

Albrecht M. C. ( 1956). D "oes literature reflect common values?" American Sociological Review, 21, 722-729.

Belk R. W., & Bryce W. J. ( 1986). "Materialism and individual determinism in U. S. and Japanese print and television advertising". In R. J. Lutz (Ed.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 13, pp. 568-572). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Belk R. W., & Pollay R. W. ( 1985). "Images of ourselves: The good life in twentieth century advertising". Journal of Consumer Research, 11, 887-897.

Bellah R. N., Madsen R., Sullivan W. M., Swindler A., & Tipton S. M. ( 1985). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

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