Coping with Uncertainty: Behavioral and Developmental Perspectives

By David S. Palermo; Center for the Study of Child and Adolescent Development | Go to book overview

( Gray, 1972). Given our previous discussion of likely interactions between the behavioral inhibition and fight/flight systems, there is some reason to consider both the balance between, and the summation of, the reactivities of these two systems as possessing their own neurological reality. If, for example, Graeff ( 1987; see earlier) is correct in his speculations concerning the role of the central gray in determining the symptoms and course of panic attacks, we might see the occurrence of such attacks as depending on the momentary balance between the behavioral inhibition and fight/flight systems; and the individuals who are prone to them, as having chronically high reactivity in both systems.

One can obviously use the approach and fight/flight systems to construct yet a third two-dimensional diagram (not to mention the three-dimensional diagram that one obtains by putting all three systems together simultaneously; see Gray, 1983, for one attempt along these lines). But I desist from playing what is still at present an amusing game. It will cease to be a game if and when we are able to situate with confidence relevant diagnostic categories, whether among adults or children, at appropriate points in the space that houses these speculations.


REFERENCES

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Albert D. J., & Chew G. L. ( 1980). "The septal forebrain and the inhibitory modulation of attack and defence in the rat: a review". Behavioral and Neural Biology, 30, 357-388.

Alkon D., & Farley J. (Eds.). ( 1984). Primary neural substrates of learning and behavioral change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Amsel A. ( 1962). "Frustrative nonreward in partial reinforcement and discrimination learning: some recent history and a theoretical extension". Psychological Review, 69, 306-328.

Bignami G. ( 1965). "Selection for high rates and low rates of avoidance conditioning in the rat". Animal Behaviour, 13, 221-227.

Blizard D. A. ( 1981) "The Maudsley reactive and nonreactive strains: a North American perspective". Behavioral Genetics, 11, 469-489.

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Broadhurst P. L. ( 1975). "The Maudsley reactive and nonreactive strains of rats: A survey". Behavioral Genetics, 5, 299-319.

Brush F. R., Baron S., Forehlich J. C., Ison J. R., Pellegrino L. J., Philips D. S., Sakellanis R. C., & Williams V. N. ( 1985). "Genetic differences in avoidancelearning by Rattus norvegicus: Escape/avoidanace responding, sensitivity to electric shock, discrimination learning, and open-field behavior"

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