THE SIGNIFICANT INTERIM
Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
By 1700, the spirit and effects of the Renaissance had spread to all the countries of Europe, and many of its achievements had become part of European life. Major developments in the new mold of science had occurred in the seventeenth century; in fact, the modern period in science came into being during that century, in which the Age of Enlightenment began. Also, the major theme of the Renaissance -- humanism, the renewed interest in man and his life on earth -- had found expression in many directions, several of which can be seen to have influenced an interest in stuttering. Not the least of these influences was the belief in the importance of the individual, but certain other important developments also prominently affected interest in and attention to the disorder as time passed.
Attention to stuttering was relatively limited in the eighteenth century, as reflected in the comprehensive survey by Klingbeil ( 1939), which contains only eleven entries from the 1700s. In contrast, interest in the disorder expanded remarkably in the 1800s, which is well represented in the 104 references in Klingbeil's review. Interest in stuttering in these two centuries, particularly the nineteenth, was influenced by three major intellectual and social forces, themselves interrelated in varying degrees: continued developments in science, especially as they influenced medicine; a broadly based interest in speech performance as an art a skill, and a suasive medium; and a concern for education. The latter two influences, being intimately interrelated, will be considered together.