voicing in the identical circumstance ( Lee et al. 1973). A fourth item of special interest is the routine utilized in the early nineteenth century by Good ( 1827) and by McCormac ( 1828) of having the patient begin treatment by saying only letters, then simple words, then words in sequence. This same technique has been offered late in the twentieth century, at which time it was presented as a newly devised procedure in a therapy program supposedly derived from, and expressing the principles of, the "operant learning" paradigm ( Ryan and Van Kirk 1971; D. M. Mowrer 1975, 1980; Costello Ingham 1993).
Nineteenth and twentieth-century correspondences will be considered again at the end of Chapter 9.