stance, Ryan and Van Kirk ( 1971), Mowrer ( 1975, 1980) and Costello Ingham ( 1993) employ a procedure first reported early in the nineteenth century. 52 In both centuries the procedure reflects a simplistic grasp of oral language function; a limitation most regretable in the late twentieth century in view of the extensive advances in linguistics. Incidently, the purported operant programs do not really conform to actual operant method.
It is in respect to treatment that stuttering in the twentieth century contains a clearly direct lineage and continuity with preceding times. For most of the century stuttering has been immersed in some psychological orientation, in which a theoretical position is presumed to provide the rationale for treatment. However, in spite of this preoccupation with presumed psychological factors, the treatment efforts undertaken have almost universally dealt with speech. Furthermore, despite occasional assertions claiming a "new" method of treatment, one can readily find, usually quite close to the surface, that the crucial aspects of the procedure are either direct borrowings from the past that have long been recognized as worthwhile, or are some variant of a previously employed useful procedure. Most often the central feature(s) will be from among those included in the "speech specific" practices listed in the "Addenda and Reflections" in Chapter 4. It is particularly pertinent to emphasize that all such procedures involve measures for developing control over speech process.
The last three chapters have covered the range of ideas about stuttering that have preoccupied attention to the disorder for more than half of the twentieth century. Although one can expect that most of these persuasions will continue to be pressed for some time to come, change is under way. There are indications that inquiry into this curious disorder is gradually, although very slowly, surfacing from its lengthy immersion in loose collections of assumptions, conjectures and beliefs which, unfortunately, are largely compoundings of twentieth century notions. Developments in the last decade of the century give evidence of an increasing interest in studying the disorder in regard to its obvious and undeniable character, namely, as a unique anomaly of oral language expression.