The counseling afforded by speech therapists should consist predominantly of advice; advice broadly based on what the therapist should know about speech, and about stuttering as a disorder of speech, and on knowledge specific to stuttering that has been objectively determined and corroborated over its lengthy history. The advice must be forthright regarding especially the matters of no known cause and no guarantee of cure. These admissions should lead quickly to confession of the general inadequacy and untenability of the many "theories" of stuttering. It follows that any statement representing any such point of view should be adequately identified as such, accompanied with pertinent caveat.
There are a number of well-documented and supportable items of knowledge about stuttering, revealed in this history, that should be included in the advice imparted to stutterers or their families. A special set of such items is listed under "Basics" in this chapter. Developing a complete list of such items might turn out to be a worthwhile undertaking. Culatta and Goldberg ( 1995: p. 156- 157) suggest that disclosure laws may soon raise legal issues in regard to stuttering treatment. They give as an example an instance in which failure to have disclosed the known hereditary factor might, in time to come, result in a lawsuit. One should add that even now someone may well find sufficient basis for litigation in the serious misrepresentations that are readily found in various "theory"-based approaches to management, and the counseling proffered.