Black and White in Southern Zambia: The Tonga Plateau Economy and British Imperialism, 1890-1939

By Kenneth P. Vickery | Go to book overview

the idea of going to Bulawayo and England, and asserted that he was the great Chief of the Batoka country." 64 This was an apparent attempt to match Lewanika's celebrated 1902 trip to the metropole. His efforts, and his success in collecting the money, have been cited as evidence that the Monze was in the process of extending his secular authority; of becoming a "chief," if you will, and spokesman for the Tonga. Perhaps so, though he collected over a narrow area, and the issue is complicated by the fact that he claimed to have British backing, a claim apparently believed. 65 More significant, perhaps, is that so much currency was available at this date in the Plateau countryside.

At the trial, the Administration, as if to emphasize Lozi seniority over any Tonga leader, made extensive use of Moquambana, Lewanika's Kalomo representative at the time. Ncete was convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment. During at least part of 1904, arguably the most important year in modern Plateau history, the "principal chief of the Batoka country" was in jail.


CONCLUSION

Between 1890 and 1904, the circumstances affecting the life and work of Plateau Tonga communities altered considerably. Links with, and threats from, powerful African entities like the Lozi, Ndebele, and Chikunda diminished in importance or disappeared entirely. The Plateau Tonga found themselves on the edge of an emerging south central African imperial economy. Numerous Tonga males migrated southward, voluntarily and otherwise, to work for wages on European-run enterprises. Ecological crises on the Plateau--rinderpest and locusts--probably swelled their number. A far smaller number of Europeans came to the Plateau to recruit labor, hunt, plunder, prospect, and trade. Toward the end of the period, in the space of a very few years, the British South Africa Company established a basic political hegemony over the area. By 1904, then, Plateau Tonga individuals and communities were already involved in a new imperial system--with many demands and some opportunities--as well as in their own domestic mode of production. In the years just ahead all these forces for change--labor migration, European presence, political domination--would be extended and deepened.


NOTES
1.
H. Lamar and L. M. Thompson, eds., The Frontier in History: North America and Southern Africa Compared ( New Haven, Conn., 1981), p. 7.
2.
F. C. Selous, Travel and Adventure in South-East Africa ( London, 1893), pp. 202-207.
3.
St. A. Hill Gibbons, Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa, 1895-1896 ( London, 1898). pp. 139-142.
4.
BSAC, Reports on the Administration of Rhodesia, 1898-1900, p. 94.

-67-

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Black and White in Southern Zambia: The Tonga Plateau Economy and British Imperialism, 1890-1939
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • RECENT TITLES IN CONTRIBUTIONS IN COMPARATIVE COLONIAL STUDIES ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Maps vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • Preface xi
  • Notes and Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction 3
  • 1 - The Plateau in the Late Nineteenth Century 13
  • Notes 29
  • 2 - The Imperial Economy in South Central Africa, 1890-1925: An Overview 35
  • Conclusion 48
  • Notes 49
  • 3 - Contact and Conquest, 1890-1904 53
  • Notes 67
  • 4 - A Colonial Situation, 1904-1918 71
  • Conclusion 112
  • Notes 113
  • 5 - Boom and Bust, 1918-1925 121
  • Notes 140
  • 6 - Transformation of the Indigenous Economy: The Emergence of a Peasantry 145
  • Notes 177
  • 7 - Peasants, Settlers, and State in the Copperbelt Era, 1925-1939 185
  • Conclusion 210
  • Conclusion 211
  • 8 - Epilogue and Conclusion 215
  • Notes 228
  • Bibliography 231
  • Index 245
  • About the Author 249
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