Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Langston Hughes : folk dramatist in the protest tradition, 1921-1943 / Joseph McLaren ; foreword by Beth Turner ; afterword by James V. Hatch. p. cm.--(Contributions in Afro-American and African studies, ISSN 0069-9624 ; no. 181) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-313-28719-8 (alk. paper) 1. Hughes, Langston, 1902-1967--Dramatic works. 2. Folk drama, American--Afro-American authors--History and criticism. 3. Protest literature, American--History and criticism. 4. Afro-Americans in literature. 5. Afro-Americans--Folklore. 6. Folklore in literature. I. Title. II. Series. PS3515.U274Z678 1997 812'.52-dc20 95-48416
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.
Copyright © 1997 by Joseph McLaren
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-48416
First published in 1997
Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Printed in the United States of America
The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984).
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
The author and publisher gratefully acknowledge permission for use of the following material:
Excerpts from Mule Bone, by Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston. Edited by George Bass and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. Used with permission.
Excerpts from unpublished works of Langston Hughes. Used with permission of Harold Ober Associates, Inc., and the Estate of Langston Hughes. Unpublished works of Langston Hughes are copyright © 1997 by Arnold Rampersad and Ramona Bass, administrators c.t.a. of the Estate of Langston Hughes.
Every reasonable effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright materials in this book, but in some instances this has proven impossible. The author and publisher will be glad to receive information leading to more complete acknowledgments in subsequent printings of the book and in the meantime extend their apologies for any omissions.