Ibsen and Early Modernist Theatre, 1890-1900

By Kirsten Shepherd-Barr | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
cHenrik Ibsen: His Men and Women, Westminster Review, cxxxi ( June 1889), p. 640.
2.
Like William, Charles Archer was a distinguished translator of Scandinavian literature, including such notable works as Sigrid Undset's Nobel Prize-winning novel Kristinlavransdatter. His translation of Rosmersholm was first published in 1891 as a separate volume by Walter Scott, with a brief introduction by William, and was the text used for this first production. William later revised it and included it in vol. IX of his Collected Works of Henrik Ibsen, along with an expanded introduction. All quotations from the play in this chapter are taken from the 1891 edition, since that was the text used by the actors.
3.
Louis N. Parker, Several of My Lives ( London, 1928), p. 148. Although generally accurate, this version is inferior to Charles Archer's, riddled with awkward and longwinded lines like: 'I knew you so far, that I was sure there was no practicable road to you, until you were emancipated, as well in your surroundings as in your spirit.' Rosmersholm, trans. Louis N. Parker ( London, 1890), p. 70. It is likely that the listing Allardyce Nicoll gives (in Late Nineteenth-Century British Drama, p. 745, under 'Unknown Authors') of a performance of Rosmersholm in Brighton on 31 August 1893 used Parker's version; in his memoirs Parker mentions an actress named May Harvey as having played among other parts 'Rebecca in my translation of Rosmersholm' ( Several of My Lives, p. 160).
4.
Michael Egan, Ibsen: The Critical Heritage ( London, 1972), p. 10.
5.
Gretchen Paulus, "Ibsen and the English Stage, 1889-1903" Ph.D. dissertation (Radcliffe, 1959), p. 93; the reception of Rosmersholm in Germany is also discussed by William Eller ( 1919) and David George ( 1968).
6.
William Archer, "The Mausoleum of Ibsen", Fortnightly Review, lx ( July 1893), p. 79.
7.
Clement Scott even called himself a great 'admirer of Ibsen's talent--nay, genius' in a review of Rosmersholm in the Illustrated London News (28 February 1891), p. 290. The critical reactions to the play have been summarized in theses by Paulus ( 1959) and Davis ( 1984).
8.
Harley Granville-Barker, "The Coming of Ibsen", in The Eighteen-Eighties, ed. Walter de la Mare ( Cambridge, 1930), p. 184.
9.
Other Ibsen plays had been mounted as well--the salon performance of La Maison de Poupée, a production of La Dame de la Mer by the Escholiers (with which Lugné- Poë was involved), and Hedda Gabler, but none of these met with a comparable success or publicity, or exercised the same influence in the long term, as Rosmersholm.
10.
The French première of Rosmersholm has been reconstructed in great detail by Frantisek Deak, in his article "Ibsen's Rosmersholm at the Théätre de l'Œuvre", Drama Review xxviii, no. 1 (Spring 1984), pp. 29-36, parts of which appear in Symbolist Theater.
11.
Reque, p. 88.
12.
Dorothy Knowles, La Réaction idéaliste au théâtre depuis 1890 ( Paris, 1934), p. 142.
13.
Deak, Symbolist Theater, p. 198.
14.
Archer introduction to Rosmersholm ( 1914), p. xvii. While other progressive

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