Ethics: The Heart of Leadership

By Joanne B. Ciulla | Go to book overview
With tough veterans moved to tears, Washington read the letter and left. Passions cooled, officers drifted off, and plans for insurrection were abandoned.
2
Much of the empirical research on transformational leadership relies on retrospective attributions to demonstrate its existence and effects. A common procedure asks research subjects to rate the past performance and leadership qualities of managers, coworkers, or historical figures ( Bass 1985; Hater and Bass 1988; Avolio, Waldman, and Einstein 1988). Correlations have been found between ratings of successful performance, charisma, and transformational behavior. Such correlations, however, do not prove that leadership causes success, or anything else. Attributions of successful performance may prompt attributions of leadership, as well as the reverse. In any event, performance attributions remain mere perceptions. The fact that some workers and college students think their bosses or popular leaders made things happen doesn't make it so ( Meindl 1990). And popularity polls of the kind used in leadership research do not speak to the minority concerns that interested Madison.
3
See Lorenz ( 1992). Once again, effective separation of power may require multiple checks and balances, such as boards of truly independent, outside directors. Steps in this direction are illustrated in GM's new board "constitution, " which gives outside directors substantial checks on corporate management ( Dobrzynski 1994).
4
Selznick believes that leaders should motivate followers to think for themselves -- so long as this contributes to institutional survival and integrity. Similarly, Kanungo tends to equate empowerment with motivation. He rejects notions of empowerment as sharing power or resources. He prefers a view of empowerment as an "enabling" force that "heightens the motivation for task accomplishment" (418). So conceived, "the behavioral effects of empowerment. . . results [sic] in workers both initiating and persevering in work behavior."

REFERENCES

Avolio Bruce J., David A. Waldman, and Walter O. Einstein. 1988. "Transformational Leadership in a Management Game Simulation". Group & Organization Studies 13: 59-80.

Avolio Bruce J., David A. Waldman, and Francis J. Yammarino. 1991. "Leading in the 1990s: The Four I's of Transformational Leadership". Journal of European Industrial Training 15: 9-16.

Bass Bernard M. 1985. Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press.

------ 1990. "From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision". Organizational Dynamics 18: 19-31.

Bennis Warren. 1977. "Where Have All the Leaders Gone"? Technology Review 79: 3-12. Reprinted in William E. Rosenbach and Robert L. Taylor, eds. Contemporary Issues in Leadership, 2nd ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1989, pp. 5-23.

------. 1989. Why Leaders Can't Lead. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bennis Warren, and Burt Nanus. 1985. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper and Row.

-141-

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Ethics: The Heart of Leadership
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Introduction xv
  • Part I - The Scope of the Issues 1
  • 1 - Leadership Ethics: Mapping the Territory 3
  • Notes 19
  • 2 - Moral Leadership and Business Ethics 27
  • Notes 43
  • Part II - Leaders and Followers: A Difficult Relationship 47
  • 3 - Ethical Challenges in the Leader-Follower Relationship 49
  • Notes 58
  • References 58
  • 4 - Leadership and the Problem of Bogus Empowerment 63
  • Notes 84
  • 5 - Ethical Leadership, Emotions, and Trust: Beyond "Charisma" 87
  • Notes 105
  • Part III - Puzzles and Perils of Transformational Leadership 109
  • 6 - The Trouble with Transformational Leadership: Toward a Federalist Ethic for Organizations 111
  • Notes 140
  • References 141
  • 7 - James Madison and the Ethics of Transformational Leadership 145
  • Notes 165
  • 8 - The Ethics of Transformational Leadership 169
  • Notes 189
  • Index 193
  • About the Editor and Contributors 197
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