Attention and Information Processing in Infants and Adults: Perspectives from Human and Animal Research

By Byron A. Campbell; Harlene Hayne et al. | Go to book overview

respects. In particular, Cowan ( 1988) and Näätänen ( 1990) viewed the OR within theoretical structures postulating early attention selection on the basis of incomplete but automatic stimulus processing, primarily focused on physical stimulus attributes. Öhman's ( 1979) model, on the other hand, represents a late attention selection model, assuming complete analysis of the stimulus before some aspect is selected by attention. Partly as a consequence of these strategical choices, Näätänen ( 1990) and Cowan ( 1988) both viewed mismatches in physical attributes in recurrent stimulation as one important route to eliciting the OR, which, at least by Näätänen, was associated with "executive" (or controlled) processing. According to Näätänen ( 1990) an OR could also result from activation of an "attention trigger" identified by the N1 ERP component. Both these routes to the OR were assumed to operate automatically and task independently. Öhman ( 1979), too, assumed that automatic processing was sufficient to elicit the OR, but from his late selection perspective, he assumed that the automatic, preattentive analysis resulted in complete analysis of the stimulus, and, furthermore, that this analysis was sufficient to elicit the OR. Thus for him, the OR was not directly related to controlled processing. However, as we have seen, both the data presented in this chapter as well as other data we have reviewed (e.g., Dawson et al., 1989; Spinks, 1989) appear to support the Näätänen-Cowan rather than the Öhman notions of OR elicitation. Furthermore, to account for the data, a formulation was suggested assuming that some critical feature of significant fear-relevant stimuli may "pop out" as a result of an automatic analysis, and thus receive some attention, before the masks interrupts further processing. This effect of fear-relevant stimuli must be assumed to have an evolutionary origin. As information is extracted from the stimulus there is a continuous growth of response activation which becomes more specific as information accumulates. Because fear-relevant stimulus features get preferential treatment, significance is determined earlier, and, as a result, the threshold for the OR is surpassed, as attention is briefly invested in the stimulus. This brief attention switch is assumed to be sufficient for eliciting the OR, for affecting expectancy ratings of the US, and for producing associative learning involving masked fear-relevant stimuli. This reformulated model provides a series of mechanisms explaining "preferential preattentive processing of potentially phobic stimuli". Thus, this model goes some way toward providing a mechanism-orienting account for data on the "preparedness effect" ( Öhman, in press), as well as for phobic fear ( Öhman et al., 1985), within the general but somewhat modified context of orienting and attention provided by the original model ( Öhman, 1979).


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This chapter is dedicated to my friend Risto Näätänen, with whom I have had the privilege of exchanging ideas over many years. He provided the impetus for the

-291-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Attention and Information Processing in Infants and Adults: Perspectives from Human and Animal Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 360

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.