was achieved, as a consequence rather than a source of the composite impression. Personalized processing would extend the associative network to include affective and behavioral engagement at the initial representation stages. However, the initiating events may engage particular response systems that then determine which processing mode is adopted. The more response systems that are engaged directly by the stimulus presentation, the more likely it is that the impression formation will be personalized rather than category-based. By integrating the dual-process model with the AST framework, a dynamic and implication-rich conceptual system emerges.
Andersen S. M., … Klatzky R. L. ( 1987). "Traits and social stereotypes: Levels of categorization in person perception." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 235-246
Bargh J. A. ( 1989). "Conditional automaticity: Varieties of automatic influence in social perception and cognition." In J. Uleman … J. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 3-51) New York: Guilford
Bodenhausen G. V. ( 1990). "Stereotypes as judgmental heuristics: Evidence of circadian variations in discrimination." Psychological Science, 1, 319-322
Brewer M. B. ( 1988). "A dual process model of impression formation." In T. Srull … R. Wyer (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 1-36). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brewer M. B., … Lui L. N. ( 1989). "The primacy of age and sex in the structure of person categories." Social Cognition, 7. 262-274
Devine P. G. ( 1989). "Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 709-726
Fiske S. T., … Pavelchak M. A. ( 1986). "Category-based vs. piecemeal-based affective responses: Developments in schema-triggered affect." In R. Sorrentino … E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (pp. 167-203). New York: Guilford
Macrae C. N., Hewstone M., … Griffiths R. J. ( 1993). "Processing load and memory for stereotype-based information." European Journal of Social Psychology, 23, 77-87
Macrae C. N., Milne A. B., … Bodenhausen G. V. ( 1994). "Stereotypes as energy-saving devices: A peek inside the cognitive toolbox." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 37-47
Oakes P., … Turner J. C. ( 1986). "Distinctiveness and the salience of social category membership: Is there an automatic perceptual bias towards novelty?" European Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 325-344
Ostrom T. M., Carpenter S. L., Sedikides C., … Li F. ( 1993). "Differential processing of in-group and out-group information." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 21-34
Taylor S. E., … Falcone H. ( 1982). "Cognitive bases of stereotyping: The relationship between categorization and prejudice." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 426-432
Wyer R. S., Jr., … Martin L. L. ( 1986). "Person memory: The role of traits, group stereotypes and specific behaviors in the cognitive representation of persons." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 661-675.