Assessment in Higher Education: Issues of Access, Quality, Student Development, and Public Policy

By Samuel J. Messick | Go to book overview

agnosis of person-situation interactions where individual aptitudes are as much a part of the situation as they are the person. In my prototheory of aptitude ( Snow, 1992, 1994), individual success and failure reflect the degree to which person and situation are tuned to one another. Successful performance comes when the demands and affordances of person and situation are in harmony. To diagnose the sources of problems thus means to study disharmony in the person-situation interface, not in the person alone. And this, in turn, means the study of college instructional situations. That is a tall order for ETS, the College Board, the GRE Board, and all others in the admissions testing enterprise. But it is an appropriate order.

To conclude, let me reiterate two main points: One is the importance of promoting broader diversity of talent relevant to higher education; the other is the importance of deeper, more comprehensive construct validity in assessments in and for higher education. If we believe in these goals, then the possibilities are there in new psychological theories and new information technologies for the development of assessment in this direction.


REFERENCES

Bereiter C., & Scardamalia M. ( 1987). The psychology of written communication. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carpenter P. A., Just M. A., & Shell P. ( 1990). "What one intelligence test measures: A theoretical account of the processing in the Raven Progressive Matrices Test". Psychological Review, 97, 404-431.

Carroll J. B. ( 1993). Human cognitive abilities. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Collins A., & Gentner D. ( 1987). "How people construct mental models". In D. Holland & N. Quinn (Eds.), Cultural models in thought and language (pp. 243-265). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Frederiksen N., Glaser R., Lesgold A., & Shafto M. (Eds.). ( 1990). Diagnostic monitoring of skill and knowledge acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Frederiksen N., Mislevy R., & Bejar I. (Eds.). ( 1993). Test theory for a new generation of tests. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Guilford J. P. ( 1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Gustafsson J-E., & Undheim J. O. ( 1995). "Individual differences in cognitive functions". In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 186-242). New York: Macmillan.

Hayes J. R., & Flower L. S. ( 1980). "Identifying the organization of writing processes". In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp.31-50). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kintsch W. ( 1988). "The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction-integration model". Psychological Review, 95, 163-182.

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