ASA and females for high and low decoding ability (probably with another measure than the PONS, which measures one's ability to read a woman's rather than a man's nonverbal cues). If women turn out to be able to identify sexually aggressive men (as risky situations have been identified), research might turn to whether any specific nonverbal behaviors are associated with high ASA.7 Although laboratory research cannot provide a definitive answer to the question, it could be a first step toward greater awareness of the factors involved in sexual assault.
Whatever direction research moves in, it is extremely gratifying that it does move. The debates by different investigators (especially Hall and myself) about the meaning of their studies may seem tediously like the proverbial argument over whether the glass is half full or half empty. But to have wide recognition of the status as well as the solidarity aspects of nonverbal behavior, and such ferment over explanations of gender differences, where before there was little of either (recognition or ferment), seems to me to be a marvelous advance in the 20 years since I began to study nonverbal communication and power.
I wish to thank Diana Brief for her assistance with literature search; the UCLA Academic Senate Research Committee and Center for the Study of Women for financial support; and Cheris Kramarae and Marianne LaFrance, whom I did not consult directly in writing this paper (and who thus may not be blamed for it), but whose generously shared resources and ideas I have called upon.
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