The Psychology of Values

By Clive Seligman; James M. Olson et al. | Go to book overview

4
Morality and the Self: Implications for the When and How of Value -- Attitude -- Behavior Relations
Connie M. Kristiansen
Alan M. Hotte Carleton University

At the second Ontario Symposium, Zanna and Fazio ( 1982) described the evolution of research as a response to three questions. First generation questions ask whether there is an effect to explain. In this regard, this chapter examines the effects of people's values on their attitudes and behavior. Second and third generation questions ask in what situations and for whom these relations hold and how or by what process. As Zanna and Fazio ( 1982) stated, these latter questions are inextricably linked in that knowledge of when a phenomenon occurs provides information about its underlying processes. This chapter therefore considers for whom and when values are likely to guide attitudes and behavior and suggests that, for moral actions, the nature of both the self and the moral issue affect the process of moral reasoning and thereby value-attitude-behavior relations. A theoretical model derived from Ajzen and Fishbein's ( 1972) original formulation of the theory of reasoned action is then proposed to capture the relation between the self and morality, on the one hand, and values, attitudes and behavior on the other.


THE VALUE-ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOR RELATION

This review and attempt to integrate seemingly independent literatures was motivated by two factors, namely the magnitude of value-attitude-behavior relations and the extent to which values are used as post hoc justifications of attitudes and behavior. Although intuitively it makes sense to assume that people use their general values in life to guide their more specific attitudes and behavior, a recent study suggested that this might not be as true as one might think ( Kristiansen &

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