ciple. Children must eventually learn the links between individual graphemes and individual phonemes (e.g., Gough and Walsh, this volume), but relationships between print and speech at the level of onsets and rimes might give them a way into the system. Research is needed to examine these proposals and find out how well they work. For example, is it true that phonemic analysis training programs that include an intermediate onset-rime step are more successful than programs that do not? At this point, we don't know the answer. However, we are optimistic that a detailed account of phonological awareness and its development -- an account that acknowledges the role of units smaller than the syllable and larger than the phoneme -- will ultimately lead to practical gains.
This research was supported by NICHD Grants HD20276 and HD00769.
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