INTRODUCTION How Much Force in Humanitarian Intervention?
T HE EVENTS IN the former Yugoslavia have been an acid test both for international principles of peace and sovereignty and international practices in peacekeeping and humanitarian intervention. With the peace process underway, it is important to consider the lessons of Yugoslavia's breakup and develop guidelines by which peace in the region can be stabilized, human rights respected, and economies developed. In fact, the Yugoslavian case provides a benchmark by which the efforts to prevent escalation of future international crises and the viability of multi-ethnic federal states should be assessed.
With regard to territorial sovereignty, the former Yugoslavia has experienced a sea change; out of a sovereign federal state five independent states have emerged. Their international position and internal cohesion, however, remains precarious and their mutual relations have barely been institutionalized. Yet there is no alternative to a nation-state model in the former Yugoslavia; proposals to reassemble the now independent states into a loose, confederal arrangement are utterly unrealistic.1 In fact, the former Yugoslavia needs a full but benign implementation of the principle of sovereignty both within and between the new political entities.
This guideline presupposes that the newly independent states have a generally recognized territorial base on which there is no disagreement with other states. Territory and nationalism are inter