Approaches to Emotion

By Klaus R. Scherer; Paul Ekman | Go to book overview

A more promising lead (which also takes situation into account) for relating the dimensions identified by neuroscience research to the nuances of feelings comes from the work of Plutchik, Tomkins, Ekman and others (this volume) who have used scaling techniques and facial expression in an attempt to classify the indicators of feelings and to relate this classification to the psychophysiological variables (such as GSR and heart rate) which were also used in the neuroscience studies reviewed here. Plutchik, for example, has identified four processes basic to his classification: (1) control-dyscontrol; (2) toward-away; (3) gain-loss; and (4) in-out. It is tempting to identify the control-dyscontrol process with the stabile-labile dimension; the toward-away process with the effective-affective dimension; the gain-loss process with the protocritic-epicritic dimension; and the in-out process with the ethical-esthetic dimension. Ekman is currently linking facial expression of specific emotional and motivational experiences to patterns of psychophysiological indicators. This research is in a position to validate the identity between Plutchik's processes (derived from factoring the reports of specific emotional and motivational experiences) and the neurologically based dimensions described in this chapter (which were derived by relating manipulations of neural systems to patterns of psychophysiological indicators). Should such a convergence of results of different research programs materialize a major step will have been achieved in understanding the physiology of the emotions and motivations which so enrich our personal and interpersonal lives.


REFERENCES

Adey, W. R., Kado, R. T., & Didio, J. "Impedence measurements in brain tissue of animals using microvolt signals". Experimental Neurology, 1962, 5, 47-66.

Arnold, M. B. Emotion and personality, Vol. II. neurological and physiological aspects. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.

Bagshaw, M. H., Benzies, S. "Multiple measures of the orienting reaction and their dissociation after amygdalectomy in monkeys". Experimental Neurology, 1968, 20, 175-187.

Bagshaw, M. H., Kimble, D. P., & Pribram, K. H. "The GSR of monkeys during orienting and habituation and after ablation of the amygdala, hippocampus and interotemporal cortex". Neuropsychologia, 1965, 3, 111-119.

Bagshaw, M. H., & Pribram, K. H. "Cortical organization in gustation (Macaca mulatta)". Journal of Neurophysiology, 1953, 16, 499-508.

Bard, P., & Rioch, D. "A study of four cats deprived of neocortex and additional portions of the forebrain". Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 60, 1937, 73-147.

Benson, A. "Symposium VIII, Munksgaard", 1975, Brain Work.

Bohus, B. "The hippocampus and the pituitary adrenal system hormones". In R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram (Eds.), The hippocampus. New York: Plenum, 1976.

Brobeck, J. R. "Review and synthesis". In M. A. Brazier (Ed.), Brain and Behavior (Vol. II). Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1963.

Brody, B. A., & Pribram, K. H. "The role of frontal and parietal cortex in cognitive processing: Tests of spatial and sequence functions". Brain, 1978, 101, 607-633.

Brown, T. S. "Olfactory and visual discrimination in the monkey after selective lesions of the temporal lobe". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1963, 56, 764-768.

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Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Questions About Emotion: An Introduction 1
  • References 7
  • 1: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH 9
  • 1: Emotion: A Neurobehavioral Analysis 13
  • References 34
  • 2: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Emotion 39
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 54
  • 3: Contributions from Neuroendocrinology 59
  • References 70
  • II DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES 73
  • 5: The Organization of Emotional Development 109
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 127
  • References 127
  • 6: Emotions in Infancy: Regulators of Contact and Relationships with Persons 129
  • Acknowledgments 154
  • III PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ETHOLOGICAL APPROACHES 159
  • 7: Affect Theory 163
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 194
  • References 194
  • 8: Emotions: A General Psychoevolutionary Theory 197
  • References 218
  • 9: Cognition, Emotion and Motivation: The Doctoring of Humpty-Dumpty 221
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 234
  • 10: The Interaction of Affect and Cognition 239
  • 11: Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition 247
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 255
  • References 255
  • 12: On Primacy of Affect 259
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 268
  • 13: A Perceptual Motor Theory of Emotion of Emotion 271
  • References 289
  • 4: On the Nature and Function of Emotion: A Component Process Approach 293
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 315
  • References 316
  • 15: Expression and the Nature of Emotion 319
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 340
  • 16: Animal Communication: Affect or Cognition? 345
  • Acknowledgments 363
  • References 363
  • IV SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLIGICAL APPROACHES 367
  • 17: Power, Status, and Emotions: A Sociological Contribution to A Psychophysiological Domain 369
  • References 381
  • 18: The Role of Emotion in Social Structure 385
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 396
  • References 396
  • 19: The Emotions in Comparative Perspective 397
  • References 411
  • Author Index 413
  • Subject Index 423
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