Approaches to Emotion

By Klaus R. Scherer; Paul Ekman | Go to book overview

as an antidepressant was found. The thyroid hormones work specifically with the catecholamine system with which they share a common amino acid precursor but do not influence the indoleamine system, where no such common progenitor exists.

Within the normal range of thyroid hormone levels fluctuations may have adaptive value so that with "demand" on the normal organism, physiological adaptation to stress is aided. If Thyroid hormones indeed are a mechanism whereby catecholamine function can be enhanced, then presumably such mechanisms would usually come into play to off-set changes in biogenic amine metabolism developing during depressive illness. Thyroid hormones by increasing β- adrenergic receptor activity may thus provide a physiological advantage to persons who face the adaptive demand of events that would otherwise be likely to lead to depressive illness. In persons predisposed to bipolar illness, however, the advantage gained in recovering from depression may become maladaptive in that manic illness may be precipitated by the same physiological mechanisms.

The thyroid axis is thus postulated as a major modulator of mood, acting in synergism with its sister mechanism the catecholaminergic messenger system. It is the pattern of interaction of the thyroid and adrenergic systems through time which is important. I suspect a search for similar neuroendocrine underlays of mood, especially as our biologic understanding and technical abilities improve, will be fruitful.


REFERENCES

Bernard, C. An introduction to the study of experimental medicine. ( H. C. Green trans.). New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., 1927.

Board, F., Wadeson, R., & Persky, H. "Depressive affect and endocrine functions". Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1957, 78, 612-620.

Brodie, B. B., & Shore, P. A. "A concept for the role of serotonin and norepinephrine as chemical mediators in the brain". Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1957, 66, 631-662.

Cannon, W. B. "The emergency function of the adrenal medulla in pain and the major emotions". American Journal of Physiology, 1914, 33, 356-372.

Carroll, B. S. "The Dexamethasone Suppression Test for Melancholia". British Journal of Psychiatry, 1982, 140, 292-304.

Curzon, G. "Tryptophan pyrrolase--a biochemical factor in depressive illness". British Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 115, 1367-1374.

Elmadjian, F. "Adrenocortical function of combat infantry men in Korea". In Ciba Coloquium-Endocrinology, 1955, 8, 627-655.

Frankenhaeuser, M. "Behavior and circulating catecholamines". Brain Research, 1971, 31, 241- 262. (a)

Frankenhaeuser, M. "Experimental approaches to the study of Human Behaviors as related to neuroendocrine functions". In L. Levi (Ed.), Society stress and disease, London: Oxford University Press, 1971. (b)

Friedman, S. B., Mason, J. W., & Hamburg, D. A. "Urinary 17-Hydroxy cortico steroid levels in parents of children with neoplastic disease". Psychosomat Medicine, 1963, 25, 364-76.

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Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Questions About Emotion: An Introduction 1
  • References 7
  • 1: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH 9
  • 1: Emotion: A Neurobehavioral Analysis 13
  • References 34
  • 2: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Emotion 39
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 54
  • 3: Contributions from Neuroendocrinology 59
  • References 70
  • II DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES 73
  • 5: The Organization of Emotional Development 109
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 127
  • References 127
  • 6: Emotions in Infancy: Regulators of Contact and Relationships with Persons 129
  • Acknowledgments 154
  • III PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ETHOLOGICAL APPROACHES 159
  • 7: Affect Theory 163
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 194
  • References 194
  • 8: Emotions: A General Psychoevolutionary Theory 197
  • References 218
  • 9: Cognition, Emotion and Motivation: The Doctoring of Humpty-Dumpty 221
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 234
  • 10: The Interaction of Affect and Cognition 239
  • 11: Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition 247
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 255
  • References 255
  • 12: On Primacy of Affect 259
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 268
  • 13: A Perceptual Motor Theory of Emotion of Emotion 271
  • References 289
  • 4: On the Nature and Function of Emotion: A Component Process Approach 293
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 315
  • References 316
  • 15: Expression and the Nature of Emotion 319
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 340
  • 16: Animal Communication: Affect or Cognition? 345
  • Acknowledgments 363
  • References 363
  • IV SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLIGICAL APPROACHES 367
  • 17: Power, Status, and Emotions: A Sociological Contribution to A Psychophysiological Domain 369
  • References 381
  • 18: The Role of Emotion in Social Structure 385
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 396
  • References 396
  • 19: The Emotions in Comparative Perspective 397
  • References 411
  • Author Index 413
  • Subject Index 423
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