Approaches to Emotion

By Klaus R. Scherer; Paul Ekman | Go to book overview

5 The Organization of Emotional Development1

L. Alan Sroufe University of Minnesota

The domain of emotional development is extensive. Obviously, it includes the evolution of the various affect systems, from precursors in early infancy to the forms we recognize in children. But it also includes the changing capacity of the infant to modulate arousal and to mediate affective response. And, in addition, it includes the role of emotions in individual development. Development in general may be viewed as organized around a series of issues, each with an emotional core. Individual differences may be assessed in terms of the quality of adaptation with respect to these developmental issues, and the consequences of early adaptation for later emotional development may be examined.

Each of these aspects of the organization of emotional development are briefly sketched in various parts of this paper. Recent research has helped to clarify the meaning of affective expressions, the relationship between early and later affective expression, and the determinants of emotional reactions. It has enabled a beginning integration of affect, cognition, and social behavior (e.g., Sroufe, Schork, Motti, Lawroski, & LaFrenier, in press). And it has provided the first predictions of the young child's functioning from assessments of infant adaptation, independent of IQ or temperament.


Subjective Factors in Emotion

Meili ( 1955) and others ( Sroufe, Waters, & Matas, 1974; Stechler & Carpenter, 1967) have emphasized that the explanation of emotional reactions is not to be

____________________
1
This chapter was reprinted, with slight expansion, from Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 1982, Vol. 1, (No. 4), 575-599.

-109-

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Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Questions About Emotion: An Introduction 1
  • References 7
  • 1: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH 9
  • 1: Emotion: A Neurobehavioral Analysis 13
  • References 34
  • 2: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Emotion 39
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 54
  • 3: Contributions from Neuroendocrinology 59
  • References 70
  • II DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES 73
  • 5: The Organization of Emotional Development 109
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 127
  • References 127
  • 6: Emotions in Infancy: Regulators of Contact and Relationships with Persons 129
  • Acknowledgments 154
  • III PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ETHOLOGICAL APPROACHES 159
  • 7: Affect Theory 163
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 194
  • References 194
  • 8: Emotions: A General Psychoevolutionary Theory 197
  • References 218
  • 9: Cognition, Emotion and Motivation: The Doctoring of Humpty-Dumpty 221
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 234
  • 10: The Interaction of Affect and Cognition 239
  • 11: Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition 247
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 255
  • References 255
  • 12: On Primacy of Affect 259
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 268
  • 13: A Perceptual Motor Theory of Emotion of Emotion 271
  • References 289
  • 4: On the Nature and Function of Emotion: A Component Process Approach 293
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 315
  • References 316
  • 15: Expression and the Nature of Emotion 319
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 340
  • 16: Animal Communication: Affect or Cognition? 345
  • Acknowledgments 363
  • References 363
  • IV SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLIGICAL APPROACHES 367
  • 17: Power, Status, and Emotions: A Sociological Contribution to A Psychophysiological Domain 369
  • References 381
  • 18: The Role of Emotion in Social Structure 385
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 396
  • References 396
  • 19: The Emotions in Comparative Perspective 397
  • References 411
  • Author Index 413
  • Subject Index 423
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