Approaches to Emotion

By Klaus R. Scherer; Paul Ekman | Go to book overview

there was some form of unconscious identification. But we can't be sure, can we?

It is a critical question for cognitive theory and for theories of emotion to determine just what is the minimal information process that is required for emotion. Can untransformed pure sensory input directly generate emotional reactions? The answer is likely to be yes because the patttern of various findings seems to point in that direction. At the simplest level, any physical stimulus if sufficiently intense produces an escape reaction. There is no doubt, therefore, that the organism is hard-wired for particular classes of reactions--at the grossest level, for approach and avoidance--to particular classes of stimuli. There is some property of afferent excitation--perhaps the extent of neural firing--that selects between approach and avoidance reactions. If other stimuli or situations can acquire this property, they too will select between approach and avoidance, and the new process will become "hard-wired. " There is no reason why afferent excitation deriving from stimuli that acquired affective potential by virtue of a cognitive process, must retain their affective potential only by retaining the cognitive element and reinstate that element on all subsequent encounters of the stimulus. Affective reactions may become autonomous and rid themselves of the cognitive mediators ( Zajonc & Markus, 1982). Neutral stimuli that acquire emotional significance through an initially extensive cognitive process, may eventually become able to select between approach and avoidance on the basis of very rudimentary sensory process that involves no mental work--a process that short- circuits cognition and links the response to sensation in a most direct fashion. If it is possible to react emotionally on the basis of pure sensory input in one case, then it is possible to so react in other cases as well.

If cognitive appraisal must be involved in all affect, then a completely new view must be taken of a variety of phenomena that I described here. The emotional system becomes subordinated to complete cognitive control. Such a system has a questionable adaptive value. In contrast, if we assume that there may be conditions of emotional arousal that do not require cognitive appraisal, we shall dedicate our research to the questions of what these conditions are and how they differ from those that do require appraisal. Should it turn out that not all emotion depends on appraisal, we may wish to enquire what is the precise role that appraisal plays in the natural history of emotional reactions--when it enters as a significant element of these reactions--and what is its role in the three manifestations of emotional states: bodily process, overt expression, and subjective feeling.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported by Grant BS-8117477 from the National Science Foundation. I wish to thank Pam Adelmann and James L. Olds for drawing my attention to the literature on retinohypothalamic tract.

-268-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Questions About Emotion: An Introduction 1
  • References 7
  • 1: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH 9
  • 1: Emotion: A Neurobehavioral Analysis 13
  • References 34
  • 2: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Emotion 39
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 54
  • 3: Contributions from Neuroendocrinology 59
  • References 70
  • II DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES 73
  • 5: The Organization of Emotional Development 109
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 127
  • References 127
  • 6: Emotions in Infancy: Regulators of Contact and Relationships with Persons 129
  • Acknowledgments 154
  • III PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ETHOLOGICAL APPROACHES 159
  • 7: Affect Theory 163
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 194
  • References 194
  • 8: Emotions: A General Psychoevolutionary Theory 197
  • References 218
  • 9: Cognition, Emotion and Motivation: The Doctoring of Humpty-Dumpty 221
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 234
  • 10: The Interaction of Affect and Cognition 239
  • 11: Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition 247
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 255
  • References 255
  • 12: On Primacy of Affect 259
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 268
  • 13: A Perceptual Motor Theory of Emotion of Emotion 271
  • References 289
  • 4: On the Nature and Function of Emotion: A Component Process Approach 293
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 315
  • References 316
  • 15: Expression and the Nature of Emotion 319
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 340
  • 16: Animal Communication: Affect or Cognition? 345
  • Acknowledgments 363
  • References 363
  • IV SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLIGICAL APPROACHES 367
  • 17: Power, Status, and Emotions: A Sociological Contribution to A Psychophysiological Domain 369
  • References 381
  • 18: The Role of Emotion in Social Structure 385
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 396
  • References 396
  • 19: The Emotions in Comparative Perspective 397
  • References 411
  • Author Index 413
  • Subject Index 423
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 426

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.