Approaches to Emotion

By Klaus R. Scherer; Paul Ekman | Go to book overview

viewed as cognitive? Affect probably cannot exist independently of cognition. In any case, we have clear and growing evidence that cognitive events are important in animal signaling behavior. Thus the task that confronts us is rather like that which the student of speech grapples with in trying to dissociate the affective from the purely linguistic content ( Ekman, Friesen, Ancoli, 1980; Scherer, 1981, in press; Williams & Stevens, 1979). Comparative studies have only just begun to deal with issues of semanticity, and it is still premature to judge how widespread the symbolic use of animal signals will prove to be. Yet, it is also clear that parallels with human emotion are present in animals, and that, at many levels, understanding them is vital to the further analysis of animal behavior. Similarly, a new generation of animal studies may lead in turn to a reappraisal of the possibility of symbolic, representational use of human, nonlinguistic signaling behaviors, especially of the face, that have hitherto been viewed as purely affective and nonrepresentational in nature.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Field work on vocal communication in vervet monkeys, conducted in collaboration with Robert Seyfarth and Dorothy Cheney was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (BNS 16894) with supplementary funding from the following: NIMH MH07446, a grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation, a NSF National Needs postdoctoral fellowship and National Geographic Society Grant No. 1767. I am indebted to Drs. Cheney and Seyfarth for permission to reprint Fig. 16. 1 and, together with Drs. Harold Gouzoules, Sarah Gouzoules and Klaus Scherer, for insightful criticisms of the manuscript.


REFERENCES

Arnold, M. B. "Perennial problems in the field of emotion". In M. Arnold (Ed.), Feelings and emotions. New York: Academic Press, 1970.

Blumenthal, A. L. The process of cognition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1977.

Candland, D. K. The persistent problems of emotion. In D. K. Candland, J. P. Fell, E. Keen, A. I. Leshner , R. M. Tarpy, & R. Plutchik (Eds.), Emotion. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1977.

Cheney, D. L., & Seyfarth, R. M. "How vervet monkeys perceive their grunts: Field playback experiments". Animal Behaviour, 1982, 30, 739-751.

Duffy, E. "Activation and behavior". New York: Wiley, 1962.

Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. "Nonverbal leakage and clues to deception". Psychiatry, 1969, 32, 88-106.

Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. "Detecting deception from the body or face". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 29, 288-298.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ancoli, S. "Facial signs of emotional experience". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 39, 1125-1134.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Scherer, K. "Body movements and voice pitch in deceptive interactions". Semiotica, 1976, 16, 23-27.

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Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Questions About Emotion: An Introduction 1
  • References 7
  • 1: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH 9
  • 1: Emotion: A Neurobehavioral Analysis 13
  • References 34
  • 2: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Emotion 39
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 54
  • 3: Contributions from Neuroendocrinology 59
  • References 70
  • II DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES 73
  • 5: The Organization of Emotional Development 109
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 127
  • References 127
  • 6: Emotions in Infancy: Regulators of Contact and Relationships with Persons 129
  • Acknowledgments 154
  • III PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ETHOLOGICAL APPROACHES 159
  • 7: Affect Theory 163
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 194
  • References 194
  • 8: Emotions: A General Psychoevolutionary Theory 197
  • References 218
  • 9: Cognition, Emotion and Motivation: The Doctoring of Humpty-Dumpty 221
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 234
  • 10: The Interaction of Affect and Cognition 239
  • 11: Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition 247
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 255
  • References 255
  • 12: On Primacy of Affect 259
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 268
  • 13: A Perceptual Motor Theory of Emotion of Emotion 271
  • References 289
  • 4: On the Nature and Function of Emotion: A Component Process Approach 293
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 315
  • References 316
  • 15: Expression and the Nature of Emotion 319
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 340
  • 16: Animal Communication: Affect or Cognition? 345
  • Acknowledgments 363
  • References 363
  • IV SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLIGICAL APPROACHES 367
  • 17: Power, Status, and Emotions: A Sociological Contribution to A Psychophysiological Domain 369
  • References 381
  • 18: The Role of Emotion in Social Structure 385
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 396
  • References 396
  • 19: The Emotions in Comparative Perspective 397
  • References 411
  • Author Index 413
  • Subject Index 423
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